< draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-21.txt   draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-22.txt >
HTTPbis Working Group R. Fielding, Ed. HTTPbis Working Group R. Fielding, Ed.
Internet-Draft Adobe Internet-Draft Adobe
Obsoletes: 2616 (if approved) Y. Lafon, Ed. Obsoletes: 2616 (if approved) Y. Lafon, Ed.
Intended status: Standards Track W3C Intended status: Standards Track W3C
Expires: April 7, 2013 J. Reschke, Ed. Expires: August 27, 2013 J. Reschke, Ed.
greenbytes greenbytes
October 4, 2012 February 23, 2013
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Range Requests Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Range Requests
draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-21 draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-22
Abstract Abstract
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level
protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypertext information protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypertext information
systems. This document defines range requests and the rules for systems. This document defines range requests and the rules for
constructing and combining responses to those requests. constructing and combining responses to those requests.
Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor) Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)
Discussion of this draft takes place on the HTTPBIS working group Discussion of this draft takes place on the HTTPBIS working group
mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at
<http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/>. <http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/>.
The current issues list is at The current issues list is at
<http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3> and related <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3> and related
documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
<http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/>. <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/>.
The changes in this draft are summarized in Appendix E.2. The changes in this draft are summarized in Appendix E.3.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on April 7, 2013. This Internet-Draft will expire on August 27, 2013.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
skipping to change at page 3, line 11 skipping to change at page 3, line 11
not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
than English. than English.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1. Conformance and Error Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1. Conformance and Error Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2. Syntax Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2. Syntax Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Range Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Range Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1. Range Specifier Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1. Byte Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. Status Code Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2. Other Range Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1. 206 Partial Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3. Accept-Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.2. 416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Range Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4. Responses to a Range Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.1. Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1. Response to a Single and Multiple Ranges Request . . . . . 7 3.2. If-Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.2. Combining Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. Responses to a Range Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5. Header Field Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1. 206 Partial Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.1. Accept-Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.2. Content-Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.2. Content-Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.3. Combining Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.3. If-Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.4. 416 Range Not Satisfiable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.4. Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.4.1. Byte Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.1. Range Unit Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.4.2. Range Retrieval Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.1.1. Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.1.2. Registrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6.1. Status Code Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.2. Status Code Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6.2. Header Field Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.3. Header Field Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6.3. Range Specifier Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 6.1. Denial of Service Attacks using Range . . . . . . . . . . 17
7.1. Overlapping Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 7. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Appendix A. Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges . . . . . . 18
Appendix A. Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges . . . . . . 17 Appendix B. Changes from RFC 2616 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Appendix B. Changes from RFC 2616 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Appendix C. Imported ABNF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Appendix C. Imported ABNF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Appendix D. Collected ABNF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Appendix D. Collected ABNF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Appendix E. Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before Appendix E. Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before
publication) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 publication) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
E.1. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-19 . . . . . . . . . . . 22 E.1. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-19 . . . . . . . . . . . 23
E.2. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-20 . . . . . . . . . . . 22 E.2. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-20 . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 E.3. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-21 . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
HTTP clients often encounter interrupted data transfers as a result Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) clients often encounter
of canceled requests or dropped connections. When a client has interrupted data transfers as a result of canceled requests or
stored a partial representation, it is desirable to request the dropped connections. When a client has stored a partial
remainder of that representation in a subsequent request rather than representation, it is desirable to request the remainder of that
transfer the entire representation. There are also a number of Web representation in a subsequent request rather than transfer the
applications that benefit from being able to request only a subset of entire representation. Likewise, devices with limited local storage
a larger representation, such as a single page of a very large might benefit from being able to request only a subset of a larger
document or only part of an image to be rendered by a device with representation, such as a single page of a very large document, or
limited local storage. the dimensions of an embedded image.
This document defines HTTP/1.1 range requests, partial responses, and This document defines HTTP/1.1 range requests, partial responses, and
the multipart/byteranges media type. The protocol for range requests the multipart/byteranges media type, obsoleting those parts
is an OPTIONAL feature of HTTP, designed so resources or recipients previously defined in [RFC2616]. Range requests are an OPTIONAL
that do not implement this feature can respond as if it is a normal feature of HTTP, designed so that recipients not implementing this
GET request without impacting interoperability. Partial responses feature (or not supporting it for the target resource) can respond as
are indicated by a distinct status code to not be mistaken for full if it is a normal GET request without impacting interoperability.
responses by intermediate caches that might not implement the Partial responses are indicated by a distinct status code to not be
mistaken for full responses by caches that might not implement the
feature. feature.
Although the HTTP range request mechanism is designed to allow for Although the range request mechanism is designed to allow for
extensible range types, this specification only defines requests for extensible range types, this specification only defines requests for
byte ranges. byte ranges.
1.1. Conformance and Error Handling 1.1. Conformance and Error Handling
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling are Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling are
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1.2. Syntax Notation 1.2. Syntax Notation
This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF)
notation of [RFC5234] with the list rule extension defined in Section notation of [RFC5234] with the list rule extension defined in Section
1.2 of [Part1]. Appendix C describes rules imported from other 1.2 of [Part1]. Appendix C describes rules imported from other
documents. Appendix D shows the collected ABNF with the list rule documents. Appendix D shows the collected ABNF with the list rule
expanded. expanded.
2. Range Units 2. Range Units
HTTP/1.1 allows a client to request that only part (a range) of the A representation can be partitioned into subranges according to
representation be included within the response. HTTP/1.1 uses range various structural units, depending on the structure inherent in the
units in the Range (Section 5.4) and Content-Range (Section 5.2) representation's media type. This "range unit" is used in the
header fields. A representation can be broken down into subranges Accept-Ranges (Section 2.3) response header field to advertise
according to various structural units. support for range requests, the Range (Section 3.1) request header
field to delineate the parts of a representation that are requested,
and the Content-Range (Section 4.2) payload header field to describe
which part of a representation is being transferred.
range-unit = bytes-unit / other-range-unit range-unit = bytes-unit / other-range-unit
bytes-unit = "bytes"
other-range-unit = token
HTTP/1.1 has been designed to allow implementations of applications
that do not depend on knowledge of ranges. The only range unit
defined by HTTP/1.1 is "bytes". Additional specifiers can be defined
as described in Section 2.1.
If a range unit is not understood in a request, a server MUST ignore
the whole Range header field (Section 5.4). If a range unit is not
understood in a response, an intermediary SHOULD pass the response to
the client; a client MUST fail.
2.1. Range Specifier Registry
The HTTP Range Specifier Registry defines the name space for the
range specifier names.
Registrations MUST include the following fields:
o Name
o Description
o Pointer to specification text
Values to be added to this name space require IETF Review (see 2.1. Byte Ranges
[RFC5226], Section 4.1).
The registry itself is maintained at
<http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-range-specifiers>.
3. Status Code Definitions
3.1. 206 Partial Content
The server has fulfilled the partial GET request for the resource. Since representation data is transferred in payloads as a sequence of
The request MUST have included a Range header field (Section 5.4) octets, a byte range is a meaningful substructure for any
indicating the desired range, and MAY have included an If-Range representation transferable over HTTP (Section 3 of [Part2]). We
header field (Section 5.3) to make the request conditional. define the "bytes" range unit for expressing subranges of the data's
octet sequence.
The response MUST include the following header fields: bytes-unit = "bytes"
o Either a Content-Range header field (Section 5.2) indicating the A byte range operation MAY specify a single range of bytes, or a set
range included with this response, or a multipart/byteranges of ranges within a single representation.
Content-Type including Content-Range fields for each part. If a
Content-Length header field is present in the response, its value
MUST match the actual number of octets transmitted in the message
body.
o Date byte-ranges-specifier = bytes-unit "=" byte-range-set
byte-range-set = 1#( byte-range-spec / suffix-byte-range-spec )
byte-range-spec = first-byte-pos "-" [ last-byte-pos ]
first-byte-pos = 1*DIGIT
last-byte-pos = 1*DIGIT
o Cache-Control, ETag, Expires, Content-Location and/or Vary, if the The first-byte-pos value in a byte-range-spec gives the byte-offset
header field would have been sent in a 200 (OK) response to the of the first byte in a range. The last-byte-pos value gives the
same request byte-offset of the last byte in the range; that is, the byte
positions specified are inclusive. Byte offsets start at zero.
If a 206 is sent in response to a request with an If-Range header Examples of byte-ranges-specifier values:
field, it SHOULD NOT include other representation header fields.
Otherwise, the response MUST include all of the representation header
fields that would have been returned with a 200 (OK) response to the
same request.
Caches MAY use a heuristic (see Section 4.1.2 of [Part6]) to o The first 500 bytes (byte offsets 0-499, inclusive):
determine freshness for 206 responses.
3.2. 416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable bytes=0-499
A server SHOULD return a response with this status code if a request o The second 500 bytes (byte offsets 500-999, inclusive):
included a Range header field (Section 5.4), and none of the ranges-
specifier values in this field overlap the current extent of the
selected resource, and the request did not include an If-Range header
field (Section 5.3). (For byte-ranges, this means that the first-
byte-pos of all of the byte-range-spec values were greater than the
current length of the selected resource.)
When this status code is returned for a byte-range request, the bytes=500-999
response SHOULD include a Content-Range header field specifying the
current length of the representation (see Section 5.2). This
response MUST NOT use the multipart/byteranges content-type. For
example,
HTTP/1.1 416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable A byte-range-spec is invalid if the last-byte-pos value is present
Date: Mon, 20 Jan 2012 15:41:54 GMT and less than the first-byte-pos.
Content-Range: bytes */47022
Content-Type: image/gif
Note: Clients cannot depend on servers to send a 416 (Requested A client can limit the number of bytes requested without knowing the
Range Not Satisfiable) response instead of a 200 (OK) response for size of the selected representation. If the last-byte-pos value is
an unsatisfiable Range header field, since not all servers absent, or if the value is greater than or equal to the current
implement this header field. length of the representation data, the byte range is interpreted as
the remainder of the representation (i.e., the server replaces the
value of last-byte-pos with a value that is one less than the current
length of the selected representation).
4. Responses to a Range Request A client can request the last N bytes of the selected representation
using a suffix-byte-range-spec.
4.1. Response to a Single and Multiple Ranges Request suffix-byte-range-spec = "-" suffix-length
suffix-length = 1*DIGIT
When an HTTP message includes the content of a single range (for If the selected representation is shorter than the specified suffix-
example, a response to a request for a single range, or to a request length, the entire representation is used. For example (assuming a
for a set of ranges that overlap without any holes), this content is representation of length 10000):
transmitted with a Content-Range header field, and a Content-Length
header field showing the number of bytes actually transferred. For
example,
HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content o The final 500 bytes (byte offsets 9500-9999, inclusive):
Date: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
Last-Modified: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 04:58:08 GMT
Content-Range: bytes 21010-47021/47022
Content-Length: 26012
Content-Type: image/gif
When an HTTP message includes the content of multiple ranges (for bytes=-500
example, a response to a request for multiple non-overlapping
ranges), these are transmitted as a multipart message. The multipart
media type used for this purpose is "multipart/byteranges" as defined
in Appendix A.
A server MAY combine requested ranges when those ranges are Or:
overlapping (see Section 7.1).
A response to a request for a single range MUST NOT be sent using the bytes=9500-
multipart/byteranges media type. A response to a request for
multiple ranges, whose result is a single range, MAY be sent as a
multipart/byteranges media type with one part. A client that cannot
decode a multipart/byteranges message MUST NOT ask for multiple
ranges in a single request.
When a client asks for multiple ranges in one request, the server o The first and last bytes only (bytes 0 and 9999):
SHOULD return them in the order that they appeared in the request.
4.2. Combining Ranges bytes=0-0,-1
A response might transfer only a subrange of a representation if the o Other valid (but not canonical) specifications of the second 500
connection closed prematurely or if the request used one or more bytes (byte offsets 500-999, inclusive):
Range specifications. After several such transfers, a client might
have received several ranges of the same representation. These
ranges can only be safely combined if they all have in common the
same strong validator, where "strong validator" is defined to be
either an entity-tag that is not marked as weak (Section 2.3 of
[Part4]) or, if no entity-tag is provided, a Last-Modified value that
is strong in the sense defined by Section 2.2.2 of [Part4].
When a client receives an incomplete 200 (OK) or 206 (Partial bytes=500-600,601-999
Content) response and already has one or more stored responses for bytes=500-700,601-999
the same method and effective request URI, all of the stored
responses with the same strong validator MAY be combined with the
partial content in this new response. If none of the stored
responses contain the same strong validator, then this new response
corresponds to a new representation and MUST NOT be combined with the
existing stored responses.
If the new response is an incomplete 200 (OK) response, then the If a valid byte-range-set includes at least one byte-range-spec with
header fields of that new response are used for any combined response a first-byte-pos that is less than the current length of the
and replace those of the matching stored responses. representation, or at least one suffix-byte-range-spec with a non-
zero suffix-length, then the byte-range-set is satisfiable.
Otherwise, the byte-range-set is unsatisfiable.
If the new response is a 206 (Partial Content) response and at least In the byte range syntax, first-byte-pos, last-byte-pos, and suffix-
one of the matching stored responses is a 200 (OK), then the combined length are expressed as decimal number of octets. Since there is no
response header fields consist of the most recent 200 response's predefined limit to the length of a payload, recipients ought to
header fields. If all of the matching stored responses are 206 anticipate potentially large decimal numerals and prevent parsing
responses, then the stored response with the most header fields is errors due to integer conversion overflows.
used as the source of header fields for the combined response, except
that the client MUST use other header fields provided in the new
response, aside from Content-Range, to replace all instances of the
corresponding header fields in the stored response.
The combined response message body consists of the union of partial 2.2. Other Range Units
content ranges in the new response and each of the selected
responses. If the union consists of the entire range of the
representation, then the combined response MUST be recorded as a
complete 200 (OK) response with a Content-Length header field that
reflects the complete length. Otherwise, the combined response(s)
MUST include a Content-Range header field describing the included
range(s) and be recorded as incomplete. If the union consists of a
discontinuous range of the representation, then the client MAY store
it as either a multipart range response or as multiple 206 responses
with one continuous range each.
5. Header Field Definitions Range units are intended to be extensible. New range units ought to
be registered with IANA, as defined in Section 5.1.
This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header other-range-unit = token
fields related to range requests and partial responses.
5.1. Accept-Ranges 2.3. Accept-Ranges
The "Accept-Ranges" header field allows a resource to indicate its The "Accept-Ranges" header field allows a server to indicate that it
acceptance of range requests. supports range requests for the target resource.
Accept-Ranges = acceptable-ranges Accept-Ranges = acceptable-ranges
acceptable-ranges = 1#range-unit / "none" acceptable-ranges = 1#range-unit / "none"
Origin servers that accept byte-range requests MAY send Origin servers that support byte-range requests MAY send
Accept-Ranges: bytes Accept-Ranges: bytes
but are not required to do so. Clients MAY generate range requests but are not required to do so. Clients MAY generate range requests
without having received this header field for the resource involved. without having received this header field for the resource involved.
Range units are defined in Section 2. Range units are defined in Section 2.
Servers that do not accept any kind of range request for a resource Servers that do not support any kind of range request for the target
MAY send resource resource MAY send
Accept-Ranges: none Accept-Ranges: none
to advise the client not to attempt a range request. to advise the client not to attempt a range request.
5.2. Content-Range 3. Range Requests
The "Content-Range" header field is sent with a partial
representation to specify where in the full representation the
payload body is intended to be applied.
Range units are defined in Section 2.
Content-Range = byte-content-range-spec
/ other-content-range-spec
byte-content-range-spec = bytes-unit SP
byte-range-resp-spec "/"
( instance-length / "*" )
byte-range-resp-spec = (first-byte-pos "-" last-byte-pos)
/ "*"
instance-length = 1*DIGIT
other-content-range-spec = other-range-unit SP
other-range-resp-spec
other-range-resp-spec = *CHAR
The header field SHOULD indicate the total length of the full
representation, unless this length is unknown or difficult to
determine. The asterisk "*" character means that the instance-length
is unknown at the time when the response was generated.
Unlike byte-ranges-specifier values (see Section 5.4.1), a byte-
range-resp-spec MUST only specify one range, and MUST contain
absolute byte positions for both the first and last byte of the
range.
A byte-content-range-spec with a byte-range-resp-spec whose last-
byte-pos value is less than its first-byte-pos value, or whose
instance-length value is less than or equal to its last-byte-pos
value, is invalid. The recipient of an invalid byte-content-range-
spec MUST ignore it and any content transferred along with it.
In the case of a byte range request: A server sending a response with
status code 416 (Requested Range Not Satisfiable) SHOULD include a
Content-Range field with a byte-range-resp-spec of "*". The
instance-length specifies the current length of the selected
resource. A response with status code 206 (Partial Content) MUST NOT
include a Content-Range field with a byte-range-resp-spec of "*".
The "Content-Range" header field has no meaning for status codes that 3.1. Range
do not explicitly describe its semantic. Currently, only status
codes 206 (Partial Content) and 416 (Requested Range Not Satisfiable)
describe the meaning of this header field.
Examples of byte-content-range-spec values, assuming that the The "Range" header field on a GET request modifies the method
representation contains a total of 1234 bytes: semantics to request transfer of only one or more subranges of the
selected representation data, rather than the entire selected
representation data.
o The first 500 bytes: Range = byte-ranges-specifier / other-ranges-specifier
other-ranges-specifier = other-range-unit "=" other-range-set
other-range-set = 1*CHAR
bytes 0-499/1234 A server MAY ignore the Range header field. However, origin servers
and intermediate caches ought to support byte ranges when possible,
since Range supports efficient recovery from partially failed
transfers and partial retrieval of large representations. A server
MUST ignore a Range header field received with a request method other
than GET.
o The second 500 bytes: An origin server MUST ignore a Range header field that contains a
range unit it does not understand. A proxy MAY either discard a
Range header field that contains a range unit it does not understand
or pass it to the next inbound server when forwarding the request.
bytes 500-999/1234 A server that supports range requests ought to ignore or reject a
Range header field that consists of more than two overlapping ranges,
or a set of many small ranges that are not listed in ascending order,
since both are indications of either a broken client or a deliberate
denial of service attack (Section 6.1). A client SHOULD NOT request
multiple ranges that are inherently less efficient to process and
transfer than a single range that encompasses the same data.
o All except for the first 500 bytes: A client that is requesting multiple ranges SHOULD list those ranges
in ascending order (the order in which they would typically be
received in a complete representation) unless there is a specific
need to request a later part earlier. For example, a user agent
processing a large representation with an internal catalog of parts
might need to request later parts first, particularly if the
representation consists of pages stored in reverse order and the user
agent wishes to transfer one page at a time.
bytes 500-1233/1234 The Range header field is evaluated after evaluating the
preconditions of [Part4] and only if the result of their evaluation
is leading toward a 200 (OK) response. In other words, Range is
ignored when a conditional GET would result in a 304 (Not Modified)
response.
o The last 500 bytes: The If-Range header field (Section 3.2) can be used as a precondition
to applying the Range header field.
bytes 734-1233/1234 If all of the preconditions are true, the server supports the Range
header field for the target resource, and the specified range(s) are
valid and satisfiable (as defined in Section 2.1), the server SHOULD
send a 206 (Partial Content) response with a payload containing one
or more partial representations that correspond to the satisfiable
ranges requested, as defined in Section 4.
If the server ignores a byte-range-spec (for example if it is If all of the preconditions are true, the server supports the Range
syntactically invalid, or if it might be seen as a denial-of-service header field for the target resource, and the specified range(s) are
attack), the server SHOULD treat the request as if the invalid Range invalid or unsatisfiable, the server SHOULD send a 416 (Range Not
header field did not exist. (Normally, this means return a 200 (OK) Satisfiable) response.
response containing the full representation).
5.3. If-Range 3.2. If-Range
If a client has a partial copy of a representation and wishes to have If a client has a partial copy of a representation and wishes to have
an up-to-date copy of the entire representation, it could use the an up-to-date copy of the entire representation, it could use the
Range header field with a conditional GET (using either or both of Range header field with a conditional GET (using either or both of
If-Unmodified-Since and If-Match.) However, if the condition fails If-Unmodified-Since and If-Match.) However, if the condition fails
because the representation has been modified, the client would then because the representation has been modified, the client would then
have to make a second request to obtain the entire current have to make a second request to obtain the entire current
representation. representation.
The "If-Range" header field allows a client to "short-circuit" the The "If-Range" header field allows a client to "short-circuit" the
second request. Informally, its meaning is "if the representation is second request. Informally, its meaning is: if the representation is
unchanged, send me the part(s) that I am missing; otherwise, send me unchanged, send me the part(s) that I am requesting in Range;
the entire new representation". otherwise, send me the entire representation.
If-Range = entity-tag / HTTP-date If-Range = entity-tag / HTTP-date
Clients MUST NOT use an entity-tag marked as weak in an If-Range Clients MUST NOT use an entity-tag marked as weak in an If-Range
field value and MUST NOT use a Last-Modified date in an If-Range field value and MUST NOT use a Last-Modified date in an If-Range
field value unless it has no entity-tag for the representation and field value unless it has no entity-tag for the representation and
the Last-Modified date it does have for the representation is strong the Last-Modified date it does have for the representation is strong
in the sense defined by Section 2.2.2 of [Part4]. in the sense defined by Section 2.2.2 of [Part4].
A server that evaluates a conditional range request that is A server that evaluates a conditional range request that is
applicable to one of its representations MUST evaluate the condition applicable to one of its representations MUST evaluate the condition
as false if the entity-tag used as a validator is marked as weak or, as false if the entity-tag used as a validator is marked as weak or,
when an HTTP-date is used as the validator, if the date value is not when an HTTP-date is used as the validator, if the date value is not
strong in the sense defined by Section 2.2.2 of [Part4]. (A server strong in the sense defined by Section 2.2.2 of [Part4]. (A server
can distinguish between a valid HTTP-date and any form of entity-tag can distinguish between a valid HTTP-date and any form of entity-tag
by examining the first two characters.) by examining the first two characters.)
The If-Range header field SHOULD only be sent by clients together A client MUST NOT generate an If-Range header field in a request that
with a Range header field. The If-Range header field MUST be ignored does not contain a Range header field. A server MUST ignore an If-
if it is received in a request that does not include a Range header Range header field received in a request that does not contain a
field. The If-Range header field MUST be ignored by a server that Range header field. An origin server MUST ignore an If-Range header
does not support the sub-range operation. field received in a request for a target resource that does not
support Range requests.
If the validator given in the If-Range header field matches the If the validator given in the If-Range header field matches the
current validator for the selected representation of the target current validator for the selected representation of the target
resource, then the server SHOULD send the specified sub-range of the resource, then the server SHOULD process the Range header field as
representation using a 206 (Partial Content) response. If the requested. If the validator does not match, then the server MUST
validator does not match, then the server SHOULD send the entire ignore the Range header field.
representation using a 200 (OK) response.
5.4. Range 4. Responses to a Range Request
4.1. 206 Partial Content
5.4.1. Byte Ranges The 206 (Partial Content) status code indicates that the server is
successfully fulfilling a range request for the target resource by
transferring one or more parts of the selected representation that
correspond to the satisfiable ranges found in the requests's Range
header field (Section 3.1).
Since all HTTP representations are transferred as sequences of bytes, If a single part is being transferred, the server generating the 206
the concept of a byte range is meaningful for any HTTP response MUST generate a Content-Range header field, describing what
representation. (However, not all clients and servers need to range of the selected representation is enclosed, and a payload
support byte-range operations.) consisting of the range. For example:
Byte range specifications in HTTP apply to the sequence of bytes in
the representation data (not necessarily the same as the message
body).
A byte range operation MAY specify a single range of bytes, or a set HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
of ranges within a single representation. Date: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
Last-Modified: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 04:58:08 GMT
Content-Range: bytes 21010-47021/47022
Content-Length: 26012
Content-Type: image/gif
byte-ranges-specifier = bytes-unit "=" byte-range-set ... 26012 bytes of partial image data ...
byte-range-set = 1#( byte-range-spec / suffix-byte-range-spec )
byte-range-spec = first-byte-pos "-" [ last-byte-pos ]
first-byte-pos = 1*DIGIT
last-byte-pos = 1*DIGIT
The first-byte-pos value in a byte-range-spec gives the byte-offset If multiple parts are being transferred, the server generating the
of the first byte in a range. The last-byte-pos value gives the 206 response MUST generate a "multipart/byteranges" payload, as
byte-offset of the last byte in the range; that is, the byte defined in Appendix A, and a Content-Type header field containing the
positions specified are inclusive. Byte offsets start at zero. multipart/byteranges media type and its required boundary parameter.
To avoid confusion with single part responses, a server MUST NOT
generate a Content-Range header field in the HTTP header block of a
multiple part response (this field will be sent in each part
instead).
If the last-byte-pos value is present, it MUST be greater than or Within the header area of each body part in the multipart payload,
equal to the first-byte-pos in that byte-range-spec, or the byte- the server MUST generate a Content-Range header field corresponding
range-spec is syntactically invalid. The recipient of a byte-range- to the range being enclosed in that body part. If the selected
set that includes one or more syntactically invalid byte-range-spec representation would have had a Content-Type header field in a 200
values MUST ignore the header field that includes that byte-range- (OK) response, the server SHOULD generate that same Content-Type
set. field in the header area of each body part. For example:
If the last-byte-pos value is absent, or if the value is greater than HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
or equal to the current length of the representation data, last-byte- Date: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
pos is taken to be equal to one less than the current length of the Last-Modified: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 04:58:08 GMT
representation in bytes. Content-Length: 1741
Content-Type: multipart/byteranges; boundary=THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
By its choice of last-byte-pos, a client can limit the number of --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
bytes retrieved without knowing the size of the representation. Content-Type: application/pdf
Content-Range: bytes 500-999/8000
suffix-byte-range-spec = "-" suffix-length ...the first range...
suffix-length = 1*DIGIT --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
Content-Type: application/pdf
Content-Range: bytes 7000-7999/8000
A suffix-byte-range-spec is used to specify the suffix of the ...the second range
representation data, of a length given by the suffix-length value. --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES--
(That is, this form specifies the last N bytes of a representation.)
If the representation is shorter than the specified suffix-length,
the entire representation is used.
If a syntactically valid byte-range-set includes at least one byte- When multiple ranges are requested, a server MAY coalesce any of the
range-spec whose first-byte-pos is less than the current length of ranges that overlap or that are separated by a gap that is smaller
the representation, or at least one suffix-byte-range-spec with a than the overhead of sending multiple parts, regardless of the order
non-zero suffix-length, then the byte-range-set is satisfiable. in which the corresponding byte-range-spec appeared in the received
Otherwise, the byte-range-set is unsatisfiable. If the byte-range- Range header field. Since the typical overhead between parts of a
set is unsatisfiable, the server SHOULD return a response with a 416 multipart/byteranges payload is around 80 bytes, depending on the
(Requested Range Not Satisfiable) status code. Otherwise, the server selected representation's media type and the chosen boundary
SHOULD return a response with a 206 (Partial Content) status code parameter length, it can be less efficient to transfer many small
containing the satisfiable ranges of the representation. disjoint parts than it is to transfer the entire selected
representation.
In the byte range syntax, first-byte-pos, last-byte-pos, and suffix- A server MUST NOT generate a multipart response to a request for a
length are expressed as decimal number of octets. Since there is no single range, since a client that does not request multiple parts
predefined limit to the length of an HTTP payload, recipients SHOULD might not support multipart responses. However, a server MAY
anticipate potentially large decimal numerals and prevent parsing generate a multipart/byteranges payload with only a single body part
errors due to integer conversion overflows. if multiple ranges were requested and only one range was found to be
satisfiable or only one range remained after coalescing. A client
that cannot process a multipart/byteranges response MUST NOT ask for
multiple ranges in a single request.
Examples of byte-ranges-specifier values (assuming a representation When a multipart response payload is generated, the server SHOULD
of length 10000): send the parts in the same order that the corresponding byte-range-
spec appeared in the received Range header field, excluding those
ranges that were deemed unsatisfiable or that were coalesced into
other ranges. A client that receives a multipart response MUST
inspect the Content-Range header field present in each body part in
order to determine which range is contained in that body part; a
client cannot rely on receiving the same ranges that it requested,
nor the same order that it requested.
o The first 500 bytes (byte offsets 0-499, inclusive): When a 206 response is generated, the server MUST generate the
following header fields, in addition to those required above, if the
field would have been sent in a 200 (OK) response to the same
request: Date, Cache-Control, ETag, Expires, Content-Location, and
Vary.
bytes=0-499 If a 206 is generated in response to a request with an If-Range
header field, the sender SHOULD NOT generate other representation
header fields beyond those required above, because the client is
understood to already have a prior response containing those header
fields. Otherwise, the sender MUST generate all of the
representation header fields that would have been sent in a 200 (OK)
response to the same request.
o The second 500 bytes (byte offsets 500-999, inclusive): A 206 response is cacheable unless otherwise indicated by explicit
cache controls (see Section 4.1.2 of [Part6]).
bytes=500-999 4.2. Content-Range
o The final 500 bytes (byte offsets 9500-9999, inclusive): The "Content-Range" header field is sent in a single part 206
(Partial Content) response to indicate the partial range of the
selected representation enclosed as the message payload, sent in each
part of a multipart 206 response to indicate the range enclosed
within each body part, and sent in 416 (Range Not Satisfiable)
responses to provide information about the selected representation.
bytes=-500 Content-Range = byte-content-range
/ other-content-range
Or: byte-content-range = bytes-unit SP
( byte-range-resp / unsatisfied-range )
bytes=9500- byte-range-resp = byte-range "/" ( complete-length / "*" )
byte-range = first-byte-pos "-" last-byte-pos
unsatisfied-range = "*/" complete-length
o The first and last bytes only (bytes 0 and 9999): complete-length = 1*DIGIT
bytes=0-0,-1 other-content-range = other-range-unit SP other-range-resp
other-range-resp = *CHAR
o Several legal but not canonical specifications of the second 500 If a 206 (Partial Content) response contains a Content-Range header
bytes (byte offsets 500-999, inclusive): field with a range unit (Section 2) that the recipient does not
understand, the recipient MUST NOT attempt to recombine it with a
stored representation. A proxy that receives such a message SHOULD
forward it downstream.
bytes=500-600,601-999 For byte ranges, a sender SHOULD indicate the complete length of the
bytes=500-700,601-999 representation from which the range has been extracted, unless the
complete length is unknown or difficult to determine. An asterisk
character ("*") in place of the complete-length indicates that the
representation length was unknown when the header field was
generated.
5.4.2. Range Retrieval Requests The following example illustrates when the complete length of the
selected representation is known by the sender to be 1234 bytes:
The "Range" header field defines the GET method (conditional or not) Content-Range: bytes 42-1233/1234
to request one or more sub-ranges of the response representation
data, instead of the entire representation data.
Range = byte-ranges-specifier / other-ranges-specifier and this second example illustrates when the complete length is
other-ranges-specifier = other-range-unit "=" other-range-set unknown:
other-range-set = 1*CHAR
A server MAY ignore the Range header field. However, origin servers Content-Range: bytes 42-1233/*
and intermediate caches ought to support byte ranges when possible,
since Range supports efficient recovery from partially failed
transfers, and supports efficient partial retrieval of large
representations.
If the server supports the Range header field and the specified range A Content-Range field value is invalid if it contains a byte-range-
or ranges are appropriate for the representation: resp that has a last-byte-pos value less than its first-byte-pos
value, or a complete-length value less than or equal to its last-
byte-pos value. The recipient of an invalid Content-Range MUST NOT
attempt to recombine the received content with a stored
representation.
o The presence of a Range header field in an unconditional GET A server generating a 416 (Range Not Satisfiable) response to a byte
modifies what is returned if the GET is otherwise successful. In range request SHOULD send a Content-Range header field with an
other words, the response carries a status code of 206 (Partial unsatisfied-range value, as in the following example:
Content) instead of 200 (OK).
o The presence of a Range header field in a conditional GET (a Content-Range: bytes */1234
request using one or both of If-Modified-Since and If-None-Match,
or one or both of If-Unmodified-Since and If-Match) modifies what
is returned if the GET is otherwise successful and the condition
is true. It does not affect the 304 (Not Modified) response
returned if the conditional is false.
In some cases, it might be more appropriate to use the If-Range The complete-length in a 416 response indicates the current length of
header field (see Section 5.3) in addition to the Range header field. the selected representation.
If a proxy that supports ranges receives a Range request, forwards The "Content-Range" header field has no meaning for status codes that
the request to an inbound server, and receives an entire do not explicitly describe its semantic. For this specification,
representation in reply, it MAY only return the requested range to only the 206 (Partial Content) and 416 (Range Not Satisfiable) status
its client. codes describe a meaning for Content-Range.
6. IANA Considerations The following are examples of Content-Range values in which the
selected representation contains a total of 1234 bytes:
6.1. Status Code Registration o The first 500 bytes:
Content-Range: bytes 0-499/1234
o The second 500 bytes:
Content-Range: bytes 500-999/1234
o All except for the first 500 bytes:
Content-Range: bytes 500-1233/1234
o The last 500 bytes:
Content-Range: bytes 734-1233/1234
4.3. Combining Ranges
A response might transfer only a subrange of a representation if the
connection closed prematurely or if the request used one or more
Range specifications. After several such transfers, a client might
have received several ranges of the same representation. These
ranges can only be safely combined if they all have in common the
same strong validator, where "strong validator" is defined to be
either an entity-tag that is not marked as weak (Section 2.3 of
[Part4]) or, if no entity-tag is provided, a Last-Modified value that
is strong in the sense defined by Section 2.2.2 of [Part4].
A client that has received multiple partial responses to GET requests
on a target resource MAY combine those responses into a larger
continuous range if they share the same strong validator.
If the most recent response is an incomplete 200 (OK) response, then
the header fields of that response are used for any combined response
and replace those of the matching stored responses.
If the most recent response is a 206 (Partial Content) response and
at least one of the matching stored responses is a 200 (OK), then the
combined response header fields consist of the most recent 200
response's header fields. If all of the matching stored responses
are 206 responses, then the stored response with the most recent
header fields is used as the source of header fields for the combined
response, except that the client MUST use other header fields
provided in the new response, aside from Content-Range, to replace
all instances of the corresponding header fields in the stored
response.
The combined response message body consists of the union of partial
content ranges in the new response and each of the selected
responses. If the union consists of the entire range of the
representation, then the client MUST record the combined response as
if it were a complete 200 (OK) response, including a Content-Length
header field that reflects the complete length. Otherwise, the
client MUST record the set of continuous ranges as one of the
following: an incomplete 200 (OK) response if the combined response
is a prefix of the representation, a single 206 (Partial Content)
response containing a multipart/byteranges body, or multiple 206
(Partial Content) responses, each with one continuous range that is
indicated by a Content-Range header field.
4.4. 416 Range Not Satisfiable
The 416 (Range Not Satisfiable) status code indicates that none of
the ranges in the request's Range header field (Section 3.1) overlap
the current extent of the selected resource or that the set of ranges
requested has been rejected due to invalid ranges or an excessive
request of small or overlapping ranges.
For byte ranges, failing to overlap the current extent means that the
first-byte-pos of all of the byte-range-spec values were greater than
the current length of the selected representation. When this status
code is generated in response to a byte range request, the sender
SHOULD generate a Content-Range header field specifying the current
length of the selected representation (Section 4.2).
For example:
HTTP/1.1 416 Range Not Satisfiable
Date: Mon, 20 Jan 2012 15:41:54 GMT
Content-Range: bytes */47022
Note: Because servers are free to ignore Range, many
implementations will simply respond with 200 (OK) if the requested
ranges are invalid or not satisfiable. That is partly because
most clients are prepared to receive a 200 (OK) to complete the
task (albeit less efficiently) and partly because clients might
not stop making an invalid partial request until they have
received a complete representation. Thus, clients cannot depend
on receiving a 416 (Range Not Satisfiable) response even when it
is most appropriate.
5. IANA Considerations
5.1. Range Unit Registry
The HTTP Range Unit Registry defines the name space for the range
unit names and refers to their corresponding specifications. The
registry is maintained at
<http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-parameters>.
5.1.1. Procedure
Registration of an HTTP Range Unit MUST include the following fields:
o Name
o Description
o Pointer to specification text
Values to be added to this name space require IETF Review (see
[RFC5226], Section 4.1).
5.1.2. Registrations
The initial HTTP Range Unit Registry shall contain the registrations
below:
+-------------+---------------------------------------+-------------+
| Range Unit | Description | Reference |
| Name | | |
+-------------+---------------------------------------+-------------+
| bytes | a range of octets | Section 2.1 |
| none | reserved as keyword, indicating no | Section 2.3 |
| | ranges are supported | |
+-------------+---------------------------------------+-------------+
The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet
Engineering Task Force".
5.2. Status Code Registration
The HTTP Status Code Registry located at The HTTP Status Code Registry located at
<http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes> shall be updated <http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes> shall be updated
with the registrations below: with the registrations below:
+-------+---------------------------------+-------------+ +-------+-----------------------+-------------+
| Value | Description | Reference | | Value | Description | Reference |
+-------+---------------------------------+-------------+ +-------+-----------------------+-------------+
| 206 | Partial Content | Section 3.1 | | 206 | Partial Content | Section 4.1 |
| 416 | Requested Range Not Satisfiable | Section 3.2 | | 416 | Range Not Satisfiable | Section 4.4 |
+-------+---------------------------------+-------------+ +-------+-----------------------+-------------+
6.2. Header Field Registration 5.3. Header Field Registration
The Message Header Field Registry located at <http://www.iana.org/ The Message Header Field Registry located at <http://www.iana.org/
assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html> shall be assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html> shall be
updated with the permanent registrations below (see [RFC3864]): updated with the permanent registrations below (see [BCP90]):
+-------------------+----------+----------+-------------+ +-------------------+----------+----------+-------------+
| Header Field Name | Protocol | Status | Reference | | Header Field Name | Protocol | Status | Reference |
+-------------------+----------+----------+-------------+ +-------------------+----------+----------+-------------+
| Accept-Ranges | http | standard | Section 5.1 | | Accept-Ranges | http | standard | Section 2.3 |
| Content-Range | http | standard | Section 5.2 | | Content-Range | http | standard | Section 4.2 |
| If-Range | http | standard | Section 5.3 | | If-Range | http | standard | Section 3.2 |
| Range | http | standard | Section 5.4 | | Range | http | standard | Section 3.1 |
+-------------------+----------+----------+-------------+ +-------------------+----------+----------+-------------+
The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet
Engineering Task Force". Engineering Task Force".
6.3. Range Specifier Registration 6. Security Considerations
The registration procedure for HTTP Range Specifiers is defined by
Section 2.1 of this document.
The HTTP Range Specifier Registry shall be created at
<http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-range-specifiers> and be
populated with the registrations below:
+---------------+-------------------------------------+-------------+
| Range | Description | Reference |
| Specifier | | |
| Name | | |
+---------------+-------------------------------------+-------------+
| bytes | a range of octets | Section 2 |
| none | reserved as keyword, indicating no | Section 5.1 |
| | ranges are supported | |
+---------------+-------------------------------------+-------------+
The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet
Engineering Task Force".
7. Security Considerations
This section is meant to inform application developers, information This section is meant to inform developers, information providers,
providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as and users of known security concerns specific to the HTTP/1.1 range
described by this document. The discussion does not include request mechanisms. More general security considerations are
definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make addressed in HTTP messaging [Part1] and semantics [Part2].
some suggestions for reducing security risks.
7.1. Overlapping Ranges 6.1. Denial of Service Attacks using Range
Range requests containing overlapping ranges can lead to the Unconstrained multiple range requests are susceptible to denial of
situation where a server is sending far more data than the size of service attacks because the effort required to request many
the complete resource representation. overlapping ranges of the same data is tiny compared to the time,
memory, and bandwidth consumed by attempting to serve the requested
data in many parts. Servers ought to ignore, coalesce, or reject
egregious range requests, such as requests for more than two
overlapping ranges or for many small ranges in a single set,
particularly when the ranges are requested out of order for no
apparent reason. Multipart range requests are not designed to
support random access.
8. Acknowledgments 7. Acknowledgments
See Section 9 of [Part1]. See Section 9 of [Part1].
9. References 8. References
9.1. Normative References 8.1. Normative References
[Part1] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer [Part1] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer
Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing", Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing",
draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-21 (work in progress), draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-22 (work in progress),
October 2012. February 2013.
[Part2] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer [Part2] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer
Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content", Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content",
draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-21 (work in progress), draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-22 (work in progress),
October 2012. February 2013.
[Part4] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer [Part4] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer
Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests", Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests",
draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-21 (work in progress), draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-22 (work in progress),
October 2012. February 2013.
[Part6] Fielding, R., Ed., Nottingham, M., Ed., and J. Reschke, [Part6] Fielding, R., Ed., Nottingham, M., Ed., and J. Reschke,
Ed., "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching", Ed., "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching",
draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-21 (work in progress), draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-22 (work in progress),
October 2012. February 2013.
[RFC2046] Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail [RFC2046] Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types", RFC 2046, Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types", RFC 2046,
November 1996. November 1996.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC5234] Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax [RFC5234] Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008. Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008.
9.2. Informative References 8.2. Informative References
[RFC2616] Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H., [BCP13] Freed, N., Klensin, J., and T. Hansen, "Media Type
Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext Specifications and Registration Procedures", BCP 13,
Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999. RFC 6838, January 2013.
[RFC3864] Klyne, G., Nottingham, M., and J. Mogul, "Registration [BCP90] Klyne, G., Nottingham, M., and J. Mogul, "Registration
Procedures for Message Header Fields", BCP 90, RFC 3864, Procedures for Message Header Fields", BCP 90, RFC 3864,
September 2004. September 2004.
[RFC4288] Freed, N. and J. Klensin, "Media Type Specifications and [RFC2616] Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
Registration Procedures", BCP 13, RFC 4288, December 2005. Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext
Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999.
[RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an [RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226, IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
May 2008. May 2008.
Appendix A. Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges Appendix A. Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges
When an HTTP 206 (Partial Content) response message includes the When a 206 (Partial Content) response message includes the content of
content of multiple ranges (a response to a request for multiple non- multiple ranges, they are transmitted as body parts in a multipart
overlapping ranges), these are transmitted as a multipart message message body ([RFC2046], Section 5.1) with the media type of
body ([RFC2046], Section 5.1). The media type for this purpose is "multipart/byteranges". The following definition is to be registered
called "multipart/byteranges". The following is to be registered with IANA [BCP13].
with IANA [RFC4288].
The multipart/byteranges media type includes one or more parts, each The multipart/byteranges media type includes one or more body parts,
with its own Content-Type and Content-Range fields. The required each with its own Content-Type and Content-Range fields. The
boundary parameter specifies the boundary string used to separate required boundary parameter specifies the boundary string used to
each body-part. separate each body part.
Type name: multipart Type name: multipart
Subtype name: byteranges Subtype name: byteranges
Required parameters: boundary Required parameters: boundary
Optional parameters: none Optional parameters: none
Encoding considerations: only "7bit", "8bit", or "binary" are Encoding considerations: only "7bit", "8bit", or "binary" are
skipping to change at page 18, line 22 skipping to change at page 19, line 47
Person and email address to contact for further information: See Person and email address to contact for further information: See
Authors Section. Authors Section.
Intended usage: COMMON Intended usage: COMMON
Restrictions on usage: none Restrictions on usage: none
Author/Change controller: IESG Author/Change controller: IESG
Note: Despite the name "multipart/byteranges" is not limited to Implementation Notes:
the byte ranges only.
For example:
HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
Date: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
Last-Modified: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 04:58:08 GMT
Content-type: multipart/byteranges; boundary=THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
--THIS_STRING_SEPARATES 1. Additional CRLFs might precede the first boundary string in the
Content-type: application/pdf body.
Content-range: bytes 500-999/8000
...the first range... 2. Although [RFC2046] permits the boundary string to be quoted, some
--THIS_STRING_SEPARATES existing implementations handle a quoted boundary string
Content-type: application/pdf incorrectly.
Content-range: bytes 7000-7999/8000
...the second range 3. A number of clients and servers were coded to an early draft of
--THIS_STRING_SEPARATES-- the byteranges specification that used a media type of multipart/
x-byteranges, which is almost (but not quite) compatible with
this type.
Another example, using the "exampleunit" range unit: Despite the name, the "multipart/byteranges" media type is not
limited to byte ranges. The following example uses an "exampleunit"
range unit:
HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
Date: Tue, 14 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT Date: Tue, 14 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
Last-Modified: Tue, 14 July 04:58:08 GMT Last-Modified: Tue, 14 July 04:58:08 GMT
Content-type: multipart/byteranges; boundary=THIS_STRING_SEPARATES Content-Length: 2331785
Content-Type: multipart/byteranges; boundary=THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
--THIS_STRING_SEPARATES --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
Content-type: video/example Content-Type: video/example
Content-range: exampleunit 1.2-4.3/25 Content-Range: exampleunit 1.2-4.3/25
...the first range... ...the first range...
--THIS_STRING_SEPARATES --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
Content-type: video/example Content-Type: video/example
Content-range: exampleunit 11.2-14.3/25 Content-Range: exampleunit 11.2-14.3/25
...the second range ...the second range
--THIS_STRING_SEPARATES-- --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES--
Notes: Appendix B. Changes from RFC 2616
1. Additional CRLFs MAY precede the first boundary string in the
body.
2. Although [RFC2046] permits the boundary string to be quoted, some
existing implementations handle a quoted boundary string
incorrectly.
3. A number of clients and servers were coded to an early draft of A weak validator cannot be used in a 206 response. (Section 4.1)
the byteranges specification to use a media type of multipart/
x-byteranges, which is almost, but not quite compatible with the
version documented in HTTP/1.1.
Appendix B. Changes from RFC 2616 The Content-Range header field only has meaning when the status code
explicitly defines its use. (Section 4.2)
Introduce Range Specifier Registry. (Section 2.1) Servers are given more leeway in how they respond to a range request,
in order to mitigate abuse by malicious (or just greedy) clients.
Clarify that it is not ok to use a weak validator in a 206 response. multipart/byteranges can consist of a single part. (Appendix A)
(Section 3.1)
Clarify that multipart/byteranges can consist of a single part. This specification introduces a Range Unit Registry. (Section 5.1)
(Appendix A)
Appendix C. Imported ABNF Appendix C. Imported ABNF
The following core rules are included by reference, as defined in The following core rules are included by reference, as defined in
Appendix B.1 of [RFC5234]: ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), Appendix B.1 of [RFC5234]: ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return),
CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls), DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double CRLF (CR LF), CTL (controls), DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double
quote), HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed), OCTET (any quote), HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed), OCTET (any
8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII 8-bit sequence of data), SP (space), and VCHAR (any visible US-ASCII
character). character).
Note that all rules derived from token are to be compared case- Note that all rules derived from token are to be compared case-
insensitively, like range-unit and acceptable-ranges. insensitively, like range-unit and acceptable-ranges.
The rules below are defined in [Part1]: The rules below are defined in [Part1]:
OWS = <OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.1> OWS = <OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3>
token = <token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.4> token = <token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.6>
The rules below are defined in other parts: The rules below are defined in other parts:
HTTP-date = <HTTP-date, defined in [Part2], Section 8.1.1.1> HTTP-date = <HTTP-date, defined in [Part2], Section 7.1.1.1>
entity-tag = <entity-tag, defined in [Part4], Section 2.3> entity-tag = <entity-tag, defined in [Part4], Section 2.3>
Appendix D. Collected ABNF Appendix D. Collected ABNF
Accept-Ranges = acceptable-ranges Accept-Ranges = acceptable-ranges
Content-Range = byte-content-range-spec / other-content-range-spec Content-Range = byte-content-range / other-content-range
HTTP-date = <HTTP-date, defined in [Part2], Section 8.1.1.1> HTTP-date = <HTTP-date, defined in [Part2], Section 7.1.1.1>
If-Range = entity-tag / HTTP-date If-Range = entity-tag / HTTP-date
OWS = <OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.1> OWS = <OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.3>
Range = byte-ranges-specifier / other-ranges-specifier Range = byte-ranges-specifier / other-ranges-specifier
acceptable-ranges = ( *( "," OWS ) range-unit *( OWS "," [ OWS acceptable-ranges = ( *( "," OWS ) range-unit *( OWS "," [ OWS
range-unit ] ) ) / "none" range-unit ] ) ) / "none"
byte-content-range-spec = bytes-unit SP byte-range-resp-spec "/" ( byte-content-range = bytes-unit SP ( byte-range-resp /
instance-length / "*" ) unsatisfied-range )
byte-range-resp-spec = ( first-byte-pos "-" last-byte-pos ) / "*" byte-range = first-byte-pos "-" last-byte-pos
byte-range-resp = byte-range "/" ( complete-length / "*" )
byte-range-set = *( "," OWS ) ( byte-range-spec / byte-range-set = *( "," OWS ) ( byte-range-spec /
suffix-byte-range-spec ) *( OWS "," [ OWS ( byte-range-spec / suffix-byte-range-spec ) *( OWS "," [ OWS ( byte-range-spec /
suffix-byte-range-spec ) ] ) suffix-byte-range-spec ) ] )
byte-range-spec = first-byte-pos "-" [ last-byte-pos ] byte-range-spec = first-byte-pos "-" [ last-byte-pos ]
byte-ranges-specifier = bytes-unit "=" byte-range-set byte-ranges-specifier = bytes-unit "=" byte-range-set
bytes-unit = "bytes" bytes-unit = "bytes"
complete-length = 1*DIGIT
entity-tag = <entity-tag, defined in [Part4], Section 2.3> entity-tag = <entity-tag, defined in [Part4], Section 2.3>
first-byte-pos = 1*DIGIT first-byte-pos = 1*DIGIT
instance-length = 1*DIGIT
last-byte-pos = 1*DIGIT last-byte-pos = 1*DIGIT
other-content-range-spec = other-range-unit SP other-range-resp-spec other-content-range = other-range-unit SP other-range-resp
other-range-resp-spec = *CHAR other-range-resp = *CHAR
other-range-set = 1*CHAR other-range-set = 1*CHAR
other-range-unit = token other-range-unit = token
other-ranges-specifier = other-range-unit "=" other-range-set other-ranges-specifier = other-range-unit "=" other-range-set
range-unit = bytes-unit / other-range-unit range-unit = bytes-unit / other-range-unit
suffix-byte-range-spec = "-" suffix-length suffix-byte-range-spec = "-" suffix-length
suffix-length = 1*DIGIT suffix-length = 1*DIGIT
token = <token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.4> token = <token, defined in [Part1], Section 3.2.6>
unsatisfied-range = "*/" complete-length
Appendix E. Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication) Appendix E. Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)
Changes up to the first Working Group Last Call draft are summarized Changes up to the first Working Group Last Call draft are summarized
in <http://tools.ietf.org/html/ in <http://tools.ietf.org/html/
draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-19#appendix-D>. draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-19#appendix-D>.
E.1. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-19 E.1. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-19
Closed issues: Closed issues:
skipping to change at page 22, line 35 skipping to change at page 23, line 35
introduction of new IANA registries as normative changes" introduction of new IANA registries as normative changes"
o <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/369>: "range units o <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/369>: "range units
vs leading zeroes vs size" vs leading zeroes vs size"
E.2. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-20 E.2. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-20
o Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling o Conformance criteria and considerations regarding error handling
are now defined in Part 1. are now defined in Part 1.
E.3. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-21
Closed issues:
o <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/175>: "Security
consideration: range flooding"
o <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/223>: "Allowing
heuristic caching for new status codes"
o <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/311>: "Add
limitations to Range to reduce its use as a denial-of-service
tool"
Index Index
2 2
206 Partial Content (status code) 5 206 Partial Content (status code) 10
4 4
416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable (status code) 6 416 Range Not Satisfiable (status code) 15
A A
Accept-Ranges header field 8 Accept-Ranges header field 7
C C
Content-Range header field 9 Content-Range header field 12
G G
Grammar Grammar
Accept-Ranges 8 Accept-Ranges 7
acceptable-ranges 8 acceptable-ranges 7
byte-content-range-spec 9 byte-content-range 12
byte-range-resp-spec 9 byte-range 12
byte-range-set 12 byte-range-resp 12
byte-range-spec 12 byte-range-set 5
byte-ranges-specifier 12 byte-range-spec 5
byte-ranges-specifier 5
bytes-unit 5 bytes-unit 5
Content-Range 9 complete-length 12
first-byte-pos 12 Content-Range 12
If-Range 11 first-byte-pos 5
instance-length 9 If-Range 9
last-byte-pos 12 last-byte-pos 5
other-range-unit 5 other-content-range 12
Range 13 other-range-resp 12
other-range-unit 5, 7
Range 7
range-unit 5 range-unit 5
ranges-specifier 12 ranges-specifier 5
suffix-byte-range-spec 12 suffix-byte-range-spec 6
suffix-length 12 suffix-length 6
unsatisfied-range 12
I I
If-Range header field 10 If-Range header field 9
M M
Media Type Media Type
multipart/byteranges 17 multipart/byteranges 18
multipart/x-byteranges 19 multipart/x-byteranges 20
multipart/byteranges Media Type 17 multipart/byteranges Media Type 18
multipart/x-byteranges Media Type 19 multipart/x-byteranges Media Type 20
R R
Range header field 11 Range header field 7
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Roy T. Fielding (editor) Roy T. Fielding (editor)
Adobe Systems Incorporated Adobe Systems Incorporated
345 Park Ave 345 Park Ave
San Jose, CA 95110 San Jose, CA 95110
USA USA
EMail: fielding@gbiv.com EMail: fielding@gbiv.com
 End of changes. 157 change blocks. 
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