Internet Engineering Task Force M. Welzl
Internet-Draft University of Oslo
Intended status: Experimental D. Damjanovic
Expires: February 1, 2011 University of Innsbruck
S. Gjessing
University of Oslo
July 31, 2010
MulTFRC: TFRC with weighted fairness
draft-irtf-iccrg-multfrc-01.txt
Abstract
This document specifies the MulTFRC congestion control mechanism.
MulTFRC is derived from TFRC and can be implemented by carrying out a
few small and simple changes to the original mechanism. Its behavior
differs from TFRC in that it emulates a number of TFRC flows with
more flexibility than what would be practical or even possible using
multiple real TFRC flows. Additionally, MulTFRC better preserves the
original features of TFRC than multiple real TFRCs do.
Status of this Memo
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provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
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This Internet-Draft will expire on February 1, 2011.
Copyright Notice
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carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
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Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1. Section 3 of RFC 5348 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.2. Section 4 of RFC 5348 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.3. Section 5 of RFC 5348 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.4. Section 6 of RFC 5348 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.5. Section 8 of RFC 5348 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.6. Appendix A of RFC 5348 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3. Usage Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.1. Which applications could use MulTFRC? . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2. Setting N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Appendix A. X_Bps implementation considerations . . . . . . . . . 13
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
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1. Introduction
"TCP-friendliness", the requirement for a flow to behave under
congestion like a flow produced by a conformant TCP (introduced by
the name of "TCP-compatibility" in [RFC2309]), has been put into
question in recent years (cf. [Bri07]). As an illustrative example,
consider the fact that not all data transfers are of equal importance
to a user. A user may therefore want to assign different priorities
to different flows between two hosts, but TCP(-friendly) congestion
control would always let these flows use the same sending rate.
Users and their applications are now already bypassing TCP-
friendliness in practice: since multiple TCP flows can better
saturate a bottleneck than a single one, some applications open
multiple connections as a simple workaround. The "GridFTP" [All03]
protocol explicitly provides this function as a performance
improvement.
Some research efforts were therefore carried out to develop protocols
where a weight can directly be applied to the congestion control
mechanism, allowing a flow to be as aggressive as a number of
parallel TCP flows at the same time. The first, and best known, such
protocol is MulTCP [Cro+98], which emulates N TCPs in a rather simple
fashion. Improved versions were later published, e.g. Stochastic
TCP [Hac+04] and Probe-Aided (PA-)MulTCP [Kuo+08]. These protocols
could be called "N-TCP-friendly", i.e. as TCP-friendly as N TCPs.
MulTFRC, defined in this document, does with TFRC [RFC5348] what
MulTCP does with TCP. In [Dam+09] [Dam10], it was shown that MulTFRC
achieves its goal of emulating N flows better than MulTCP (and
improved versions of it) and has a number of other benefits. For
instance, MulTFRC with N=2 is more reactive than two real TFRC flows
are, and it has a smoother sending rate than two real MulTFRC flows
do. Moreover, since it is only one mechanism, a protocol that uses
MulTFRC can send a single data stream with the congestion control
behavior of multiple data streams without the need to split the data
and spread it over separate connections. Depending on the protocol
in use, N real TFRC flows can also be expected to have N times the
overhead for, e.g., connection setup and teardown, of a MulTFRC flow
with the same value of N.
The core idea of TFRC is to achieve TCP-friendliness by explicitly
calculating an equation which approximates the steady-state
throughput of TCP and sending as much as the calculation says. The
core idea of MulTFRC is to replace this equation in TFRC with the
algorithm from [Dam+08] [Dam10], which approximates the steady-state
throughput of N TCP flows. MulTFRC can be implemented via a few
simple changes to the TFRC code. It is therefore defined here by
specifying how it differs from the TFRC specification [RFC5348].
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2. Specification
This section lists the changes to [RFC5348] that must be applied to
turn TFRC into MulTFRC. The small number of changes ensures that
many original properties of a single TFRC flow are preserved, which
is often the most appropriate choice (e.g. it would probably not make
sense for a MulTFRC flow to detect a data-limited interval
differently than a single TFRC flow would). It also makes MulTFRC
easy to understand and implement. Experiments have shown that these
changes are enough to attain the desired effect.
2.1. Section 3 of RFC 5348
While the TCP throughput equation requires the loss event rate,
round-trip time and segment size as input, the algorithm to be used
for MulTFRC additionally needs the number of packets lost in a loss
event. The equation, specified in [RFC5348] as
s
X_Bps = ----------------------------------------------------------
R*sqrt(2*b*p/3) + (t_RTO * (3*sqrt(3*b*p/8)*p*(1+32*p^2)))
is replaced with the following algorithm, which returns X_Bps, the
average transmit rate of N TCPs in bytes per second:
If (N < 12) {
af = N * (1-(1-1/N)^j);
}
Else {
af = j;
}
af=max(min(af,ceil(N)),1);
a = p*b*af*(24*N^2+p*b*af*(N-2*af)^2);
x= (af*p*b*(2*af-N)+sqrt(a))/(6*N^2*p);
z=t_RTO*(1+32*p^2)/(1-p);
q=min(2*j*b*z/(R*(1+3*N/j)*x^2), N*z/(x*R), N);
X_Bps=((1-q/N)/(p*x*R)+q/(z*(1-p)))*s;
Where:
s is the segment size in bytes (excluding IP and transport
protocol headers).
R is the round-trip time in seconds.
b is the maximum number of packets acknowledged by a single TCP
acknowledgement.
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p is the loss event rate, between 0 and 1.0, of the number of loss
events as a fraction of the number of packets transmitted.
j is the number of packets lost in a loss event.
t_RTO is the TCP retransmission timeout value in seconds.
N is the number of TFRC flows that MulTFRC should emulate. N is a
positive rational number; a discussion of appropriate values for
this parameter, and reasons for choosing them, is provided in
Section 3.2.
ceil(N) gives the smallest integer greater than or equal to N.
x, af, a, z and q are temporary floating point variables.
Appendix A contains an argument that shows why the calculations in
the algorithm will not overflow, underflow or produce significant
rounding errors.
Section 3.1 of [RFC5348] contains a recommendation for setting the
t_RTO parameter, and a simplification of the equation as a result of
setting this parameter in a specific way. This part of the TFRC
specification could be applied here too. Section 3.1 of [RFC5348]
also contains a discussion of the parameter b for delayed
acknowledgements and concludes that the use of b=1 is RECOMMENDED.
This is also the case for MulTFRC.
Section 3.2.2 of [RFC5348] specifies the contents of feedback
packets. In addition to the information listed there, a MulTFRC
feedback packet also carries j, the number of packets lost in a loss
event.
2.2. Section 4 of RFC 5348
The procedure for updating the allowed sending rate in section 4.3 of
[RFC5348] ("action 4") contains the statement:
Calculate X_Bps using the TCP throughput equation.
which is replaced with the statement:
If (p==1) {
X_Bps=s*N/t_mbi;
} Else {
Calculate X_Bps using the algorithm defined in section 3.
}
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2.3. Section 5 of RFC 5348
Section 5.2 of [RFC5348] explains how a lost packet that starts a new
loss event should be distinguished from a lost packet that is a part
of the previous loss event interval. Here, additionally the number
of packets lost in a loss event is counted, and therefore this
section is extended with:
If S_new is a part of the current loss interval LP_0 (the number of
lost packets in the current interval) is increased by 1. On the
other hand, if S_new starts a new loss event, LP_0 is set to 1.
Section 5.4 of [RFC5348] contains the algorithm for calculating the
average loss interval that is needed for calculation of the loss
event rate, p. MulTFRC also requires the number of lost packets in a
loss event, j. In [RFC5348] the calculation of the average loss
interval is done using a filter that weights the n most recent loss
event intervals, and setting n to 8 is RECOMMENDED. The same
algorithm is used here for calculating the average loss interval.
For the number of lost packets in a loss event interval, j, the
weighted average number of lost packets in the n most recent loss
intervals is taken and the same filter is used.
For calculating the average number of packets lost in a loss event
interval we use the same loss intervals as for the p calculation.
Let LP_0 to LP_k be the number of lost packets in the k most recent
loss intervals. The algorithm for calculating I_mean in Section 5.4
of [RFC5348] (page 23) is extended by adding, after the last line ("p
= 1 / I_mean;"):
LP_tot = 0;
If (I_tot0 > I_tot1) {
for (i = 0 to k-1) {
LP_tot = LP_tot + (LP_i * w_i);
}
}
Else {
for (i = 1 to k) {
LP_tot = LP_tot + (LP_i * w_i);
}
}
j = LP_tot/W_tot;
In section 5.5 of [RFC5348] (page 25), the algorithm that ends with
"p = min(W_tot0/I_tot0, W_tot1/I_tot1);" is extended by adding:
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LP_tot = 0;
If (I_tot0 > I_tot1) {
for (i = 0 to k-1) {
LP_tot = Lp_tot + (LP_i * w_i * DF_i * DF);
}
j = LP_tot/W_tot0;
}
Else {
for (i = 1 to k) {
LP_tot = LP_tot + (LP_i * w_(i-1) * DF_i);
}
j = LP_tot/W_tot1;
}
2.4. Section 6 of RFC 5348
The steps to be carried out by the receiver when a packet is received
in section 6.1 of [RFC5348] ("action 4") contain the statement:
3) Calculate p: Let the previous value of p be p_prev. Calculate
the new value of p as described in Section 5.
which is replaced with the statement:
3) Calculate p and j: Let the previous values of p and j be p_prev
and j_prev. Calculate the new values of p and j as described in
Section 5.
The steps to be carried out by the receiver upon expiration of
feedback timer in section 6.2 of [RFC5348] ("action 1") contain the
statement:
1) Calculate the average loss event rate using the algorithm
described in Section 5.
which is replaced with:
1) Calculate the average loss event rate and average number of
lost packets in a loss event using the algorithm described in
Section 5.
This statement is added at the beginning of the list of initial steps
to take when the first packet is received, in section 6.3 of
[RFC5348]:
o Set j = 0.
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Section 6.3.1 of [RFC5348] discusses how the loss history is
initialized after the first loss event. TFRC approximates the rate
to be the maximum value of X_recv so far, assuming that a higher rate
introduces loss. Therefore j for this rate is approximated by 1 and
the number of packets lost in the first interval is set to 1. This
is accomplished by the following change. The first sentence of the
fourth paragraph (in section 6.3.1) is:
TFRC does this by finding some value, p, for which the throughput
equation in Section 3.1 gives a sending rate within 5% of X_target,
given the round-trip time R, and the first loss interval is then set
to 1/p.
which is replaced with:
TFRC does this by finding some value, p, for which the throughput
equation in Section 3.1 gives a sending rate within 5% of X_target,
given the round-trip time R, and j equal to 1. The first loss
interval is then set to 1/p.
The second last paragraph in section 6.3.1 ends with:
Thus, the TFRC receiver calculates the loss interval that would be
required to produce the target rate X_target of 0.5/R packets per
second, for the round-trip time R, and uses this synthetic loss
interval for the first loss interval. The TFRC receiver uses 0.5/R
packets per second as the minimum value for X_target when
initializing the first loss interval.
which is replaced with:
Thus, the TFRC receiver calculates the loss interval that would be
required to produce the target rate X_target of 0.5/R packets per
second, for the round-trip time R, and for j equal to 1. This
synthetic loss interval is used for the first loss interval. The TFRC
receiver uses 0.5/R packets per second as the minimum value for
X_target when initializing the first loss interval.
2.5. Section 8 of RFC 5348
Section 8.1 explains details about calculating the original TCP
throughput equation, which was replaced with a new algorithm in this
document. It is therefore obsolete.
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2.6. Appendix A of RFC 5348
This section provides a terminology list for TFRC, which is extended
as follows:
N: number of emulated TFRC flows.
j: number of packets lost in a loss event.
3. Usage Considerations
The "weighted fairness" service provided by a protocol using MulTFRC
is quite different from the service provided by traditional Internet
transport protocols. This section intends to answer some questions
that this new service may raise.
3.1. Which applications could use MulTFRC?
Like TFRC, MulTFRC is suitable for applications that require a
smoother sending rate than standard TCP. Since it is likely that
these would be multimedia applications, TFRC has largely been
associated with them (and [RFC5348] mentions "streaming media" as an
example). Since timely transmission is often more important for them
than reliability, multimedia applications usually do not keep
retransmitting packets until their successful delivery is ensured.
Accordingly, TFRC usage was specified for the Datagram Congestion
Control Protocol (DCCP) [RFC4342], but not for reliable data
transfers.
MulTFRC, on the other hand, provides an altogether different service.
For some applications, a smoother sending rate may not be
particularly desirable but might also not be considered harmful,
while the ability to emulate the congestion control of N flows may be
useful for them. This could include reliable transfers such as the
transmission of files. Possible reasons to use MulTFRC for file
transfers include the assignment of priorities according to user
preferences, increased efficiency with N > 1, the implementation of
low-priority "scavenger" services and resource pooling [Wis+08].
3.2. Setting N
N MUST be set at the beginning of a transfer; it MUST NOT be changed
while a transfer is ongoing. The effects of changing N during the
lifetime of a MulTFRC session on the dynamics of the mechanism are
yet to be investigated; in particular, it is unclear how often N
could safely be changed, and how "safely" should be defined in this
context. Further research is required to answer these questions.
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N is a positive floating point number which can also take values
between 0 and 1, making MulTFRC applicable as a mechanism for what
has been called a "Lower-than-Best-Effort" (LBE) service. Since it
does not reduce its sending rate early as delay increases, as some
alternative proposals for such a service do (e.g. TCP-LP [Kuz+06],
TCP Nice [Ven+02] or 4CP [Liu+07]), it can probably be expected to be
more aggressive than these mechanisms if they share a bottleneck at
the same time. This, however, also means that MulTFRC is less likely
to be prone to starvation. Values between 0 and 1 could also be
useful if MulTFRC is used across multiple paths to realize resource
pooling [Wis+08].
Setting N to 1 is also possible. In this case, the only difference
between TFRC and MulTFRC is that the underlying model of TFRC assumes
that all remaining packets following a dropped packet in a "round"
(less than one round-trip time apart) are also dropped, whereas the
underlying model of MulTFRC does not have this assumption. Whether
it is correct or not depends on the specific network situation; large
windows and other queuing schemes than Drop-Tail make it less likely
for the assumption to match reality. This document does not make any
recommendation about which mechanism to use if only one flow is
desired.
Since TCP has been extensively studied, and the aggression of its
congestion control mechanism is emulated by TFRC, we can look at the
behavior of a TCP aggregate in order to find a reasonable upper limit
for N in MulTFRC. From [Alt+06], N TCPs (assuming non-sychronized
loss events over connections) can saturate a bottleneck link by
roughly 100-100/(1+3N) percent. This means that a single flow can
only achieve 75% utilization, whereas 3 flows already achieve 90%.
The theoretical gain that can be achieved by adding a flow declines
with the total number of flows - e.g., while going from 1 to 2 flows
is a 14.3% performance gain, the gain becomes less than 1% beyond 6
flows (which already achieve 95% link utilization). Since the link
utilization of MulTFRC can be expected to be roughly the same as the
link utilization of multiple TCPs, the approximation above also holds
for MulTFRC. Thus, setting N to a much larger value than the values
mentioned above will only yield a marginal benefit in isolation but
can significantly affect other traffic. Therefore, the maximum value
that a user can set for MulTFRC SHOULD NOT exceed 6.
Note that the model in [Alt+06], and hence the above discussion,
considers the long-term steady-state behavior of TCP, which may not
always be seen when the bandwidth*delay product is very large
[RFC3649]. This is due to TCP's slow congestion window growth in the
congestion avoidance phase. While a MulTFRC flow with N > 1 can
generally be expected to outperform a single standard TCP flow if N
is large enough, such usage of MulTFRC is not recommended as a fix to
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the problem of saturating very large bandwidth*delay product paths:
in order to always achieve good bottleneck utilization with MulTFRC
under such conditions, N would have to be a function of the
bandwidth*delay product. In other words, the mechanism does not
scale with bandwidth and delay; very large bandwidth or delay values
may require very large values for N, leading to a behavior which is
overly aggressive but possibly worse in terms of performance than
mechanisms such as HighSpeed TCP [RFC3649], which are specifically
designed for such situations. The same argument applies for running
multiple TCP flows, as in [All03].
4. Security Considerations
It is well known that a single uncontrolled UDP flow can cause
significant harm to a large number of TCP flows that share the same
bottleneck. This potential danger is due to the total lack of
congestion control in UDP. Because this problem is well known, and
because UDP is easy to detect, UDP traffic will often be rate limited
by service providers.
If MulTFRC is used within a protocol such as DCCP, which will
normally not be considered harmful and will therefore typically not
be rate-limited, its tunable aggression could theoretically make it
possible to use it for a Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack. In order to
avoid such usage, the maximum value of N MUST be restricted. If, as
recommended in this document, the maximum value for N is restricted
to 6, the impact of MulTFRC on TCP is roughly the same as the impact
of 6 TCP flows would be. It is clear that the conjoint congestion
control behavior of 6 TCPs is far from being such an attack.
With transport protocols such as TCP, SCTP or DCCP, users can already
be more aggressive than others by opening multiple connections. If
MulTFRC is used within a transport protocol, this effect becomes more
pronounced - e.g., 2 connections with N set to 6 for each of them
roughly exhibit the same congestion control behavior as 12 TCP flows.
The N limit SHOULD therefore be implemented as a system wide
parameter such that the sum of the N values of all MulTFRC
connections does not exceed it. Alternatively, the number of
connections that can be opened could be restricted.
5. Acknowledgements
This work was partially funded by the EU IST project EC-GIN under the
contract STREP FP6-2006-IST-045256.
The authors would like to thank the following people whose feedback
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and comments contributed to this document (in alphabetic order):
Lachlan Andrew, Dirceu Cavendish, Soo-Hyun Choi, Wes Eddy.
6. References
6.1. Normative References
[RFC5348] Floyd, S., Handley, M., Padhye, J., and J. Widmer, "TCP
Friendly Rate Control (TFRC): Protocol Specification",
RFC 5348, September 2008.
6.2. Informative References
[All03] Allcock, W., "GridFTP: Protocol Extensions to FTP for the
Grid", Open Grid Forum Document GFD.20, 2003.
[Alt+06] Altman, E., Barman, D., Tuffin, B., and M. Vojnovic,
"Parallel TCP Sockets: Simple Model, Throughput and
Validation", Proceedings of Infocom 2006, April 2006.
[Bri07] Briscoe, B., "Flow rate fairness: dismantling a religion",
ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review vol. 37, no. 2,
(April 2007), pp. 63-74, April 2007.
[Cro+98] Crowcroft, J. and P. Oechslin, "Differentiated end-to-end
Internet services using a weighted proportional fair
sharing TCP", ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication
Review vol. 28, no. 3 (July 1998), pp. 53-69, 1998.
[Dam+08] Damjanovic, D., Welzl, M., Telek, M., and W. Heiss,
"Extending the TCP Steady-State Throughput Equation for
Parallel TCP Flows", University of Innsbruck, Institute of
Computer Science, DPS NSG Technical Report 2, August 2008.
[Dam+09] Damjanovic, D. and M. Welzl, "MulTFRC: Providing Weighted
Fairness for Multimedia Applications (and others too!)",
ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review vol. 39, issue 9
(July 2009), 2009.
[Dam10] Damjanovic, D., "Parallel TCP Data Transfers: A Practical
Model and its Application", Ph.D. thesis, University of
Innsbruck, Austria, February 2010, .
[Hac+04] Hacker, T., Noble, B., and B. Athey, "Improving Throughput
and Maintaining Fairness using Parallel TCP", Proceedings
of Infocom 2004, March 2004.
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[Kuo+08] Kuo, F. and X. Fu, "Probe-Aided MulTCP: an aggregate
congestion control mechanism", ACM SIGCOMM Computer
Communication Review vol. 38, no. 1 (January 2008), pp.
17-28, 2008.
[Kuz+06] Kuzmanovic, A. and E. Knightly, "TCP-LP: low-priority
service via end-point congestion control", IEEE/ACM
Transactions on Networking (ToN) Volume 14, Issue 4, pp.
739-752., August 2006,
.
[Liu+07] Liu, S., Vojnovic, M., and D. Gunawardena, "Competitive
and Considerate Congestion Control for Bulk Data
Transfers", Proceedings of IWQoS 2007, June 2007.
[RFC2309] Braden, B., Clark, D., Crowcroft, J., Davie, B., Deering,
S., Estrin, D., Floyd, S., Jacobson, V., Minshall, G.,
Partridge, C., Peterson, L., Ramakrishnan, K., Shenker,
S., Wroclawski, J., and L. Zhang, "Recommendations on
Queue Management and Congestion Avoidance in the
Internet", RFC 2309, April 1998.
[RFC3649] Floyd, S., "HighSpeed TCP for Large Congestion Windows",
RFC 3649, December 2003.
[RFC4342] Floyd, S., Kohler, E., and J. Padhye, "Profile for
Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) Congestion
Control ID 3: TCP-Friendly Rate Control (TFRC)", RFC 4342,
March 2006.
[Ven+02] Venkataramani, A., Kokku, R., and M. Dahlin, "TCP Nice: a
mechanism for background transfers", Proceedings of
OSDI '02, 2002.
[Wis+08] Wischik, D., Handley, M., and M. Braun, "The Resource
Pooling Principle", ACM Computer Communication Review
Volume 38, Issue 5 (October 2008), October 2008, .
Appendix A. X_Bps implementation considerations
In this appendix we show why the algorithm for calculating X_Bps in
Section 2.1 contains integer and floating point arithmetic that will
not give underflow, overflow or rounding errors that will adversely
affect the result of the algorithm. Note that the algorithm is not
invoked when p == 1. p is computed in section 5.4 of [RFC5348]. If p
is equal to 1 there is exactly one packet in each loss interval (and
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this will be an ECN-marked packet).
Assuming that the rest of the parameters are not outside their
conceivable values, the calculation of X_Bps in Section 2.1 could
lead to arithmetic errors or large imprecision only if p is very
close to 1. However this will never happen because p is calculated
as 1/I_mean in section 5.4 of [RFC5348]. The algorithm that
calculates I_mean does so by a weighted average of the number of
packets in the last n loss events. If n == 8 and the weights are set
as defined in [RFC5348], the smallest possible value of I_mean will
be 1.033333. The reason for this is that the number of packets in a
loss event is a positive integer and the smallest value (not equal to
1) is found when all recent intervals are of length 1, but the oldest
interval (number 8 in this case) is of length two. All other sizes
of loss intervals and smaller values of n will give higher values for
I_mean and hence lower values for p.
Below we analyze the algorithm that calculates X_Bps, and see that it
will always execute without any overflow, underflows or large
rounding errors. In this analysis we assume that no parameter has an
improper value. We say that a calculation is "sound" when no
overflow, underflow or significant rounding may occur during the
calculation.
In the first lines of the algorithm, af is calculated, and it is easy
to see that the calculation is sound and that the value of af will
end up between 1 and N+1. In the calculation of a, N may be equal to
or close to af/2, and then the expression (p*b*af*(N-2*af)^2) may
evaluate to a number very close to 0. However, (24*N^2) is added,
and hence the calculation of a is sound, as the values of p, b and N
are neither extremely small nor extremely large. Note that a will be
a smaller value when p is a smaller value.
When x is calculated there will be no problem to find the root of a,
and then add it to (af*p*b*(2*af-N)), which again might be a very
small value. The final calculation of x involves a division by
(6*p*N^2). However when p is small, the dividend is not very large
(dominated by p and a), hence the calculation of x is sound and the
result will neither be a very large nor a very small number.
However, we need to show that x will not be 0 or negative, otherwise
the algorithm will try a division by 0, or, if x is negative, the
calculation of X_Bps could turn out to be a negative value.
We show that x is a positive rational number (and not 0) by defining
W=p*b*af, Y=2*af-N and D=6*N^2*p. Then the assignment to x can be
written as x= (W*Y + sqrt(W*24*N^2 + W^2 * (-Y)^2 )) / D. If we
subtract W*24*N^2 from the argument to the sqrt-function, we get an
expression that is obviously smaller, hence after the assignment to
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x, this inequality holds: x > (W*Y + sqrt(W^2 * (-Y)^2) ) / D.
Simplifying the right hand side gives: x > (W*Y - W*Y) / D, that is:
x > 0.
From this argument it is also clear that x is not close to 0, so that
the divisons by x (or x*R) that we will see later in the algorithm
will give a sound result. Then z is found by division by 1-p, which
is sound when p is not close to 1 (which we have argued above it is
not). Below we also need the fact that z is not close to 0, which is
true because neither t_RTO nor p is close to 0.
Since neither R, j nor x is 0, or close to 0, the calculation of the
first parameter to the min function is sound. The second parameter
of the min function is sound because x*R is not a value close to 0,
and hence the execution of all the three arguments to the min
function is sound.
Finally X_Bps is calculated and since N, p, x, R, z are not close to
zero, and p is not close to one (and hence 1-p is not close to 0),
this final calculation is also sound.
Authors' Addresses
Michael Welzl
University of Oslo
PO Box 1080 Blindern
Oslo, N-0316
Norway
Phone: +47 22 85 24 20
Email: michawe@ifi.uio.no
Dragana Damjanovic
University of Innsbruck
Technikerstr. 21 A
Innsbruck, A-6020
Austria
Phone: +43 512 507 96803
Email: dragana.damjanovic@uibk.ac.at
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Stein Gjessing
University of Oslo
PO Box 1080 Blindern
Oslo, N-0316
Norway
Phone: +47 22 85 24 44
Email: steing@ifi.uio.no
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