HTTPAUTH Working Group Y. Oiwa
Internet-Draft H. Watanabe
Intended status: Experimental H. Takagi
Expires: April 24, 2014 RISEC, AIST
T. Hayashi
Lepidum
Y. Ioku
Individual
October 21, 2013
Mutual Authentication Protocol for HTTP: KAM3-based Cryptographic
Algorithms
draft-oiwa-httpauth-mutual-algo-01
Abstract
This document specifies some cryptographic algorithms which will be
used for the Mutual user authentication method for the Hyper-text
Transport Protocol (HTTP).
Status of this Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
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material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on April 24, 2014.
Copyright Notice
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document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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publication of this document. Please review these documents
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to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
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described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Authentication Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1. Support Functions and Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.2. Functions for Discrete-Logarithm Settings . . . . . . . . 4
2.3. Functions for Elliptic-Curve Settings . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5. Notice on intellectual properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
6.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
6.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Appendix A. (Informative) Group Parameters for
Discrete-Logarithm Based Algorithms . . . . . . . . . 8
Appendix B. (Informative) Derived Numerical Values . . . . . . . 11
Appendix C. (Informative) Draft Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . 12
C.1. Changes in HTTPAUTH revision 01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
C.2. Changes in revision 02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
C.3. Changes in revision 01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
C.4. Changes in revision 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
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1. Introduction
This document specifies some algorithms for Mutual authentication
protocol for Hyper-Text Transport Protocol (HTTP)
[I-D.ietf-httpauth-mutual].
1.1. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
[RFC2119].
The term "natural numbers" refers to the non-negative integers
(including zero) throughout this document.
This document treats target (codomain) of hash functions to be octet
strings. The notation INT(H(s)) gives a natural-number output of
hash function H applied to string s.
2. Authentication Algorithms
This document specifies only one family of the authentication
algorithm. The family consists of four authentication algorithms,
which only differ in their underlying mathematical groups and
security parameters. The algorithms do not add any additional
parameters. The tokens for these algorithms are
o iso-kam3-dl-2048-sha256: for the 2048-bit discrete-logarithm
setting with the SHA-256 hash function.
o iso-kam3-dl-4096-sha512: for the 4096-bit discrete-logarithm
setting with the SHA-512 hash function.
o iso-kam3-ec-p256-sha256: for the 256-bit prime-field elliptic-
curve setting with the SHA-256 hash function.
o iso-kam3-ec-p521-sha512: for the 521-bit prime-field elliptic-
curve setting with the SHA-512 hash function.
For discrete-logarithm settings, the underlying groups are the 2048-
bit and 4096-bit MODP groups defined in [RFC3526], respectively. See
Appendix A for the exact specifications of the groups and associated
parameters. The hash functions H are SHA-256 for the 2048-bit group
and SHA-512 for the 4096-bit group, respectively, defined in FIPS PUB
180-2 [FIPS.180-2.2002]. The representation of the parameters kc1,
ks1, vkc, and vks is base64-fixed-number.
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For the elliptic-curve settings, the underlying groups are the
elliptic curves over the prime fields P-256 and P-521, respectively,
specified in the appendix D.1.2 of FIPS PUB 186-3 [FIPS.186-3.2009]
specification. The hash functions H, which are referenced by the
core document, are SHA-256 for the P-256 curve and SHA-512 for the
P-521 curve, respectively. The representation of the parameters kc1,
ks1, vkc, and vks is hex-fixed-number.
Note: This algorithm is based on the Key Agreement Mechanism 3 (KAM3)
defined in Section 6.3 of ISO/IEC 11770-4 [ISO.11770-4.2006] with a
few modifications/improvements. However, implementers should use
this document as the normative reference, because the algorithm has
been changed in several minor details as well as major improvements.
2.1. Support Functions and Notations
The algorithm definitions use several support functions and notations
defined below:
The integers in the specification are in decimal, or in hexadecimal
when prefixed with "0x".
The functions named octet(), OCTETS(), and INT() are those defined in
the core specification [I-D.ietf-httpauth-mutual].
Note: The definition of OCTETS() is different from the function
GE2OS_x in the original ISO specification, which takes the shortest
representation without preceding zeros.
All of the algorithms defined in this specification use the default
functions defined in the core specification for computing the values
pi, VK_c and VK_s.
2.2. Functions for Discrete-Logarithm Settings
In this section, an equation (x / y mod z) denotes a natural number w
less than z that satisfies (w * y) mod z = x mod z.
For the discrete-logarithm, we refer to some of the domain parameters
by using the following symbols:
o q: for "the prime" defining the MODP group.
o g: for "the generator" associated with the group.
o r: for the order of the subgroup generated by g.
The function J is defined as
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J(pi) = g^(pi) mod q.
The value of K_c1 is derived as
K_c1 = g^(S_c1) mod q,
where S_c1 is a random integer within range [1, r-1] and r is the
size of the subgroup generated by g. In addition, S_c1 MUST be
larger than log(q)/log(g) (so that g^(S_c1) > q).
The value of K_c1 SHALL satisfy 1 < K_c1 < q-1. The server MUST
check this condition upon reception.
Let an intermediate value t_1 be
t_1 = INT(H(octet(1) | OCTETS(K_c1))),
the value of K_s1 is derived from J(pi) and K_c1 as:
K_s1 = (J(pi) * K_c1^(t_1))^(S_s1) mod q
where S_s1 is a random number within range [1, r-1]. The value of
K_s1 MUST satisfy 1 < K_s1 < q-1. If this condition is not held, the
server MUST retry using another value for S_s1. The client MUST
check this condition upon reception.
Let an intermediate value t_2 be
t_2 = INT(H(octet(2) | OCTETS(K_c1) | OCTETS(K_s1))),
the value z on the client side is derived by the following equation:
z = K_s1^((S_c1 + t_2) / (S_c1 * t_1 + pi) mod r) mod q.
The value z on the server side is derived by the following equation:
z = (K_c1 * g^(t_2))^(S_s1) mod q.
2.3. Functions for Elliptic-Curve Settings
For the elliptic-curve setting, we refer to some of the domain
parameters by the following symbols:
o q: for the prime used to define the group.
o G: for the defined point called the generator.
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o r: for the order of the subgroup generated by G.
The function P(p) converts a curve point p into an integer
representing point p, by computing x * 2 + (y mod 2), where (x, y)
are the coordinates of point p. P'(z) is the inverse of function P,
that is, it converts an integer z to a point p that satisfies P(p) =
z. If such p exists, it is uniquely defined. Otherwise, z does not
represent a valid curve point. The operator + indicates the
elliptic-curve group operation, and the operation [x] * p denotes an
integer-multiplication of point p: it calculates p + p + ... (x
times) ... + p. See the literatures on elliptic-curve cryptography
for the exact algorithms used for those functions (e.g. Section 3 of
[RFC6090], which uses different notations, though.) 0_E represents
the infinity point. The equation (x / y mod z) denotes a natural
number w less than z that satisfies (w * y) mod z = x mod z.
The function J is defined as
J(pi) = [pi] * G.
The value of K_c1 is derived as
K_c1 = P(K_c1'), where K_c1' = [S_c1] * G,
where S_c1 is a random number within range [1, r-1]. The value of
K_c1 MUST represent a valid curve point, and K_c1' SHALL NOT be 0_E.
The server MUST check this condition upon reception.
Let an intermediate integer t_1 be
t_1 = INT(H(octet(1) | OCTETS(K_c1))),
the value of K_s1 is derived from J(pi) and K_c1' = P'(K_c1) as:
K_s1 = P([S_s1] * (J(pi) + [t_1] * K_c1')),
where S_s1 is a random number within range [1, r-1]. The value of
K_s1 MUST represent a valid curve point and satisfy [4] * P'(K_s1) <>
0_E. If this condition is not satisfied, the server MUST retry using
another value for S_s1. The client MUST check this condition upon
reception.
Let an intermediate integer t_2 be
t_2 = INT(H(octet(2) | OCTETS(K_c1) | OCTETS(K_s1))),
the value z on the client side is derived by the following equation:
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z = P([(S_c1 + t_2) / (S_c1 * t_1 + pi) mod r] * P'(K_s1)).
The value z on the server side is derived by the following equation:
z = P([S_s1] * (P'(K_c1) + [t_2] * G)).
3. IANA Considerations
Four tokens iso-kam3-dl-2048-sha256, iso-kam3-dl-4096-sha512,
iso-kam3-ec-p256-sha256 and iso-kam3-ec-p521-sha512 shall be
allocated and registered according to the provision of the core
documentation when this document is promoted to an RFC.
Note: More formal declarations will be added in the future drafts to
meet the RFC 5226 requirements.
4. Security Considerations
Refer the corresponding section of the core specification for
algorithm-independent, generic considerations.
o All random numbers used in these algorithms MUST be at least
cryptographically computationally secure against forward and
backward guessing attacks.
o Computation times of all numerical operations on discrete-
logarithm group elements and elliptic-curve points MUST be
normalized and made independent of the exact values, to prevent
timing-based side-channel attacks.
5. Notice on intellectual properties
The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
(AIST) and Yahoo! Japan, Inc. has jointly submitted a patent
application on the protocol proposed in this documentation to the
Patent Office of Japan. The patent is intended to be open to any
implementors of this protocol and its variants under non-exclusive
royalty-free manner. For the details of the patent application and
its status, please contact the author of this document.
The elliptic-curve based authentication algorithms might involve
several existing third-party patents. The authors of the document
take no position regarding the validity or scope of such patents, and
other patents as well.
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6. References
6.1. Normative References
[FIPS.180-2.2002]
National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Secure
Hash Standard", FIPS PUB 180-2, August 2002, .
[FIPS.186-3.2009]
National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Digital
Signature Standard (DSS)", FIPS PUB 186-3, June 2009, .
[I-D.ietf-httpauth-mutual]
Oiwa, Y., Watanabe, H., Takagi, H., Hayashi, T., and Y.
Ioku, "Mutual Authentication Protocol for HTTP",
draft-ietf-httpauth-mutual-01 (work in progress),
October 2013.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC3526] Kivinen, T. and M. Kojo, "More Modular Exponential (MODP)
Diffie-Hellman groups for Internet Key Exchange (IKE)",
RFC 3526, May 2003.
6.2. Informative References
[ISO.11770-4.2006]
International Organization for Standardization,
"Information technology - Security techniques - Key
management - Part 4: Mechanisms based on weak secrets",
ISO Standard 11770-4, May 2006.
[RFC6090] McGrew, D., Igoe, K., and M. Salter, "Fundamental Elliptic
Curve Cryptography Algorithms", RFC 6090, February 2011.
Appendix A. (Informative) Group Parameters for Discrete-Logarithm Based
Algorithms
The MODP group used for the iso-kam3-dl-2048-sha256 algorithm is
defined by the following parameters.
The prime is:
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q = 0xFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF C90FDAA2 2168C234 C4C6628B 80DC1CD1
29024E08 8A67CC74 020BBEA6 3B139B22 514A0879 8E3404DD
EF9519B3 CD3A431B 302B0A6D F25F1437 4FE1356D 6D51C245
E485B576 625E7EC6 F44C42E9 A637ED6B 0BFF5CB6 F406B7ED
EE386BFB 5A899FA5 AE9F2411 7C4B1FE6 49286651 ECE45B3D
C2007CB8 A163BF05 98DA4836 1C55D39A 69163FA8 FD24CF5F
83655D23 DCA3AD96 1C62F356 208552BB 9ED52907 7096966D
670C354E 4ABC9804 F1746C08 CA18217C 32905E46 2E36CE3B
E39E772C 180E8603 9B2783A2 EC07A28F B5C55DF0 6F4C52C9
DE2BCBF6 95581718 3995497C EA956AE5 15D22618 98FA0510
15728E5A 8AACAA68 FFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF.
The generator is:
g = 2.
The size of the subgroup generated by g is:
r = (q - 1) / 2 =
0x7FFFFFFF FFFFFFFF E487ED51 10B4611A 62633145 C06E0E68
94812704 4533E63A 0105DF53 1D89CD91 28A5043C C71A026E
F7CA8CD9 E69D218D 98158536 F92F8A1B A7F09AB6 B6A8E122
F242DABB 312F3F63 7A262174 D31BF6B5 85FFAE5B 7A035BF6
F71C35FD AD44CFD2 D74F9208 BE258FF3 24943328 F6722D9E
E1003E5C 50B1DF82 CC6D241B 0E2AE9CD 348B1FD4 7E9267AF
C1B2AE91 EE51D6CB 0E3179AB 1042A95D CF6A9483 B84B4B36
B3861AA7 255E4C02 78BA3604 650C10BE 19482F23 171B671D
F1CF3B96 0C074301 CD93C1D1 7603D147 DAE2AEF8 37A62964
EF15E5FB 4AAC0B8C 1CCAA4BE 754AB572 8AE9130C 4C7D0288
0AB9472D 45565534 7FFFFFFF FFFFFFFF.
The MODP group used for the iso-kam3-dl-4096-sha512 algorithm is
defined by the following parameters.
The prime is:
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q = 0xFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF C90FDAA2 2168C234 C4C6628B 80DC1CD1
29024E08 8A67CC74 020BBEA6 3B139B22 514A0879 8E3404DD
EF9519B3 CD3A431B 302B0A6D F25F1437 4FE1356D 6D51C245
E485B576 625E7EC6 F44C42E9 A637ED6B 0BFF5CB6 F406B7ED
EE386BFB 5A899FA5 AE9F2411 7C4B1FE6 49286651 ECE45B3D
C2007CB8 A163BF05 98DA4836 1C55D39A 69163FA8 FD24CF5F
83655D23 DCA3AD96 1C62F356 208552BB 9ED52907 7096966D
670C354E 4ABC9804 F1746C08 CA18217C 32905E46 2E36CE3B
E39E772C 180E8603 9B2783A2 EC07A28F B5C55DF0 6F4C52C9
DE2BCBF6 95581718 3995497C EA956AE5 15D22618 98FA0510
15728E5A 8AAAC42D AD33170D 04507A33 A85521AB DF1CBA64
ECFB8504 58DBEF0A 8AEA7157 5D060C7D B3970F85 A6E1E4C7
ABF5AE8C DB0933D7 1E8C94E0 4A25619D CEE3D226 1AD2EE6B
F12FFA06 D98A0864 D8760273 3EC86A64 521F2B18 177B200C
BBE11757 7A615D6C 770988C0 BAD946E2 08E24FA0 74E5AB31
43DB5BFC E0FD108E 4B82D120 A9210801 1A723C12 A787E6D7
88719A10 BDBA5B26 99C32718 6AF4E23C 1A946834 B6150BDA
2583E9CA 2AD44CE8 DBBBC2DB 04DE8EF9 2E8EFC14 1FBECAA6
287C5947 4E6BC05D 99B2964F A090C3A2 233BA186 515BE7ED
1F612970 CEE2D7AF B81BDD76 2170481C D0069127 D5B05AA9
93B4EA98 8D8FDDC1 86FFB7DC 90A6C08F 4DF435C9 34063199
FFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF.
The generator is:
g = 2.
The size of the subgroup generated by g is:
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r = (q - 1) / 2 =
0x7FFFFFFF FFFFFFFF E487ED51 10B4611A 62633145 C06E0E68
94812704 4533E63A 0105DF53 1D89CD91 28A5043C C71A026E
F7CA8CD9 E69D218D 98158536 F92F8A1B A7F09AB6 B6A8E122
F242DABB 312F3F63 7A262174 D31BF6B5 85FFAE5B 7A035BF6
F71C35FD AD44CFD2 D74F9208 BE258FF3 24943328 F6722D9E
E1003E5C 50B1DF82 CC6D241B 0E2AE9CD 348B1FD4 7E9267AF
C1B2AE91 EE51D6CB 0E3179AB 1042A95D CF6A9483 B84B4B36
B3861AA7 255E4C02 78BA3604 650C10BE 19482F23 171B671D
F1CF3B96 0C074301 CD93C1D1 7603D147 DAE2AEF8 37A62964
EF15E5FB 4AAC0B8C 1CCAA4BE 754AB572 8AE9130C 4C7D0288
0AB9472D 45556216 D6998B86 82283D19 D42A90D5 EF8E5D32
767DC282 2C6DF785 457538AB AE83063E D9CB87C2 D370F263
D5FAD746 6D8499EB 8F464A70 2512B0CE E771E913 0D697735
F897FD03 6CC50432 6C3B0139 9F643532 290F958C 0BBD9006
5DF08BAB BD30AEB6 3B84C460 5D6CA371 047127D0 3A72D598
A1EDADFE 707E8847 25C16890 54908400 8D391E09 53C3F36B
C438CD08 5EDD2D93 4CE1938C 357A711E 0D4A341A 5B0A85ED
12C1F4E5 156A2674 6DDDE16D 826F477C 97477E0A 0FDF6553
143E2CA3 A735E02E CCD94B27 D04861D1 119DD0C3 28ADF3F6
8FB094B8 67716BD7 DC0DEEBB 10B8240E 68034893 EAD82D54
C9DA754C 46C7EEE0 C37FDBEE 48536047 A6FA1AE4 9A0318CC
FFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF.
Appendix B. (Informative) Derived Numerical Values
This section provides several numerical values for implementing this
protocol, derived from the above specifications. The values shown in
this section are for informative purposes only.
+----------------+---------+---------+---------+---------+----------+
| | dl-2048 | dl-4096 | ec-p256 | ec-p521 | |
+----------------+---------+---------+---------+---------+----------+
| Size of K_c1 | 2048 | 4096 | 257 | 522 | (bits) |
| etc. | | | | | |
| Size of H(...) | 256 | 512 | 256 | 512 | (bits) |
| length of | 256 | 512 | 33 | 66 | (octets) |
| OCTETS(K_c1) | | | | | |
| etc. | | | | | |
| length of kc1, | 344 * | 684 * | 66 | 132 | (octets) |
| ks1 param. | | | | | |
| values. | | | | | |
| length of vkc, | 44 * | 88 * | 64 | 128 | (octets) |
| vks param. | | | | | |
| values. | | | | | |
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| minimum | 2048 | 4096 | 1 | 1 | |
| allowed S_c1 | | | | | |
+----------------+---------+---------+---------+---------+----------+
(The numbers marked with an * do not include any enclosing quotation
marks.)
Appendix C. (Informative) Draft Change Log
C.1. Changes in HTTPAUTH revision 01
o Notation change: integer output of hash function will be notated
as INT(H(*)), changed from H(*).
C.2. Changes in revision 02
o Implementation hints in appendix changed (number of characters for
base64-fixed-number does not contain double-quotes).
C.3. Changes in revision 01
o Parameter names renamed.
o Some expressions clarified without changing the value.
C.4. Changes in revision 00
The document is separated from the revision 08 of the core
documentation.
Authors' Addresses
Yutaka Oiwa
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Research Institute for Secure Systems
Tsukuba Central 2
1-1-1 Umezono
Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki
JP
Email: mutual-auth-contact-ml@aist.go.jp
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Hajime Watanabe
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Research Institute for Secure Systems
Tsukuba Central 2
1-1-1 Umezono
Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki
JP
Hiromitsu Takagi
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Research Institute for Secure Systems
Tsukuba Central 2
1-1-1 Umezono
Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki
JP
Tatsuya Hayashi
Lepidum Co. Ltd.
#602, Village Sasazuka 3
1-30-3 Sasazuka
Shibuya-ku, Tokyo
JP
Yuichi Ioku
Individual
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