From nobody Mon Feb 2 02:33:21 2015 Return-Path: X-Original-To: gaia@ietfa.amsl.com Delivered-To: gaia@ietfa.amsl.com Received: from localhost (ietfa.amsl.com [127.0.0.1]) by ietfa.amsl.com (Postfix) with ESMTP id AAF4C1A00B6 for ; Mon, 2 Feb 2015 02:33:19 -0800 (PST) X-Virus-Scanned: amavisd-new at amsl.com X-Spam-Flag: NO X-Spam-Score: -2.33 X-Spam-Level: X-Spam-Status: No, score=-2.33 tagged_above=-999 required=5 tests=[BAYES_50=0.8, HELO_EQ_IT=0.635, HOST_EQ_IT=1.245, HTML_MESSAGE=0.001, RCVD_IN_DNSWL_HI=-5, SPF_PASS=-0.001, T_RP_MATCHES_RCVD=-0.01] autolearn=ham Received: from mail.ietf.org ([4.31.198.44]) by localhost (ietfa.amsl.com [127.0.0.1]) (amavisd-new, port 10024) with ESMTP id KXl9TxMMeasP for ; Mon, 2 Feb 2015 02:33:17 -0800 (PST) Received: from smtp2.ictp.it (smtp2.ictp.it [140.105.16.52]) by ietfa.amsl.com (Postfix) with ESMTP id 5E0AC1A0092 for ; Mon, 2 Feb 2015 02:33:16 -0800 (PST) Received: from localhost (localhost [127.0.0.1]) by smtp2.ictp.it (Postfix) with ESMTP id BC337400EFA7 for ; Mon, 2 Feb 2015 11:33:14 +0100 (CET) X-Virus-Scanned: Debian amavisd-new at smtp2.ictp.it Received: from smtp2.ictp.it ([127.0.0.1]) by localhost (smtp2.ictp.it [127.0.0.1]) (amavisd-new, port 10025) with LMTP id s2Q_26BUqQ_k for ; Mon, 2 Feb 2015 11:33:14 +0100 (CET) Received: from Marco-Network.local (unknown [140.105.28.21]) (using TLSv1.2 with cipher ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA384 (256/256 bits)) (No client certificate requested) by smtp2.ictp.it (Postfix) with ESMTPSA id EDE00400EF9D for ; Mon, 2 Feb 2015 11:33:13 +0100 (CET) Date: Mon, 2 Feb 2015 11:33:13 +0100 From: Marco Zennaro To: gaia@irtf.org Message-ID: X-Mailer: Airmail (286) MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="54cf5269_628c895d_19a" Archived-At: Subject: [gaia] The Digital Divide Is Not Binary X-BeenThere: gaia@irtf.org X-Mailman-Version: 2.1.15 Precedence: list List-Id: Global Access to the Internet for All List-Unsubscribe: , List-Archive: List-Post: List-Help: List-Subscribe: , X-List-Received-Date: Mon, 02 Feb 2015 10:33:19 -0000 --54cf5269_628c895d_19a Content-Type: text/plain; charset="utf-8" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Disposition: inline http://www.wired.com/2015/01/the-digital-divide-is-not-binary/ Best, Marco Marco Zennaro, PhD Telecommunications / ICT for=C2=A0Development Laboratory the Abdus Salam International=C2=A0Centre for Theoretical Physics Strada Costiera 11 34014 Trieste Italy Telephone: +39 040 2240=C2=A0406 Web: =C2=A0=C2=A0 =C2=A0 =C2=A0 =C2=A0=C2=A0 http://wireless.ictp.it --54cf5269_628c895d_19a Content-Type: text/html; charset="utf-8" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Disposition: inline

Best,
Marco

Marco Zennaro, PhD
Telecommunications / IC= T for Development Laboratory
the Abdus Salam Internati= onal Centre for Theoretical Physics
Strada Costiera 11=
34014 Trieste
Italy

Telephone: +39 040 2240 406
Web:= &n= bsp;         http://wireless.ictp.it
<= /font>
--54cf5269_628c895d_19a-- From nobody Thu Feb 5 04:34:40 2015 Return-Path: X-Original-To: gaia@ietfa.amsl.com Delivered-To: gaia@ietfa.amsl.com Received: from localhost (ietfa.amsl.com [127.0.0.1]) by ietfa.amsl.com (Postfix) with ESMTP id F1C501A87DE for ; Thu, 5 Feb 2015 04:34:37 -0800 (PST) X-Virus-Scanned: amavisd-new at amsl.com X-Spam-Flag: NO X-Spam-Score: -1.902 X-Spam-Level: X-Spam-Status: No, score=-1.902 tagged_above=-999 required=5 tests=[BAYES_00=-1.9, SPF_HELO_PASS=-0.001, SPF_PASS=-0.001] autolearn=ham Received: from mail.ietf.org ([4.31.198.44]) by localhost (ietfa.amsl.com [127.0.0.1]) (amavisd-new, port 10024) with ESMTP id 75UaHm9JAJPO for ; Thu, 5 Feb 2015 04:34:30 -0800 (PST) Received: from na01-bn1-obe.outbound.protection.outlook.com (mail-bn1on0679.outbound.protection.outlook.com [IPv6:2a01:111:f400:fc10::679]) (using TLSv1.2 with cipher ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA384 (256/256 bits)) (No client certificate requested) by ietfa.amsl.com (Postfix) with ESMTPS id 8033E1A87C6 for ; Thu, 5 Feb 2015 04:34:29 -0800 (PST) Received: from BLUPR06MB594.namprd06.prod.outlook.com (10.141.206.142) by BLUPR06MB180.namprd06.prod.outlook.com (10.242.190.27) with Microsoft SMTP Server (TLS) id 15.1.65.19; Thu, 5 Feb 2015 12:34:07 +0000 Received: from [192.168.0.9] (81.2.115.113) by BLUPR06MB594.namprd06.prod.outlook.com (10.141.206.142) with Microsoft SMTP Server (TLS) id 15.1.75.20; Thu, 5 Feb 2015 12:34:03 +0000 MIME-Version: 1.0 (Mac OS X Mail 8.2 \(2070.6\)) Content-Type: multipart/signed; boundary="Apple-Mail=_7E89500C-A8E3-48C5-AFC6-49A0E4FAD250"; protocol="application/pgp-signature"; micalg=pgp-sha512 X-Pgp-Agent: GPGMail 2.5b4 From: Matthew Ford In-Reply-To: <72a801d0359e$c1c14c80$4543e580$@unizar.es> Date: Thu, 5 Feb 2015 12:33:50 +0000 Message-ID: <76FC4549-F12D-481A-A3E6-87931B88EE31@isoc.org> References: <20150121171650.3309.77447.idtracker@ietfa.amsl.com> <72a801d0359e$c1c14c80$4543e580$@unizar.es> To: gaia X-Mailer: Apple Mail (2.2070.6) X-Originating-IP: [81.2.115.113] X-ClientProxiedBy: DB3PR05CA0039.eurprd05.prod.outlook.com (25.160.41.167) To BLUPR06MB594.namprd06.prod.outlook.com (10.141.206.142) Authentication-Results: irtf.org; dkim=none (message not signed) header.d=none; X-Microsoft-Antispam: UriScan:;UriScan:; X-Microsoft-Antispam: BCL:0;PCL:0;RULEID:;SRVR:BLUPR06MB594; X-Exchange-Antispam-Report-Test: UriScan:; X-Exchange-Antispam-Report-CFA-Test: BCL:0; PCL:0; RULEID:(601004); SRVR:BLUPR06MB594; X-Forefront-PRVS: 0478C23FE0 X-Forefront-Antispam-Report: SFV:NSPM; SFS:(10009020)(6049001)(6009001)(377424004)(59124003)(53754006)(51704005)(24454002)(82746002)(50226001)(64706001)(568964001)(36756003)(512874002)(66066001)(42186005)(69556001)(230783001)(83716003)(117156001)(46102003)(84326002)(19580395003)(87976001)(1720100001)(15975445007)(40100003)(2420400003)(77096005)(77156002)(33656002)(86362001)(62966003)(122386002)(50986999)(19580405001)(2950100001)(92566002)(76176999)(110136001)(57306001)(7099025)(7059030)(104396002); DIR:OUT; SFP:1101; SCL:1; SRVR:BLUPR06MB594; H:[192.168.0.9]; FPR:; SPF:None; MLV:ovrnspm; PTR:InfoNoRecords; LANG:en; X-Exchange-Antispam-Report-CFA-Test: BCL:0;PCL:0;RULEID:;SRVR:BLUPR06MB594; X-MS-Exchange-CrossTenant-OriginalArrivalTime: 05 Feb 2015 12:34:03.7905 (UTC) X-MS-Exchange-CrossTenant-FromEntityHeader: Hosted X-MS-Exchange-Transport-CrossTenantHeadersStamped: BLUPR06MB594 X-Microsoft-Antispam: BCL:0;PCL:0;RULEID:;SRVR:BLUPR06MB180; X-OriginatorOrg: isoc.org Archived-At: Cc: Jose Saldana Subject: Re: [gaia] New Version Notification for draft-manyfolks-gaia-community-networks-02.txt X-BeenThere: gaia@irtf.org X-Mailman-Version: 2.1.15 Precedence: list List-Id: Global Access to the Internet for All List-Unsubscribe: , List-Archive: List-Post: List-Help: List-Subscribe: , X-List-Received-Date: Thu, 05 Feb 2015 12:34:38 -0000 --Apple-Mail=_7E89500C-A8E3-48C5-AFC6-49A0E4FAD250 Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Type: text/plain; charset=utf-8 We're probably at the point where it makes sense to consider adoption of = this work as an RG document. Is there any objection to that? Please share your opinion on the list by = Friday 20th Feb. Personally (co-chair hat off) I have some comments which I plan to send = along to the list shortly, but I don't have any objection to adopting = this work. Mat > On 21 Jan 2015, at 17:21, Jose Saldana wrote: >=20 > Hi all, >=20 > We have just updated (and uploaded) a new version of the "Manyfolks = draft": Alternative Network Deployments. Taxonomy and characterization. >=20 > URL: = http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-manyfolks-gaia-community-network= s-02.txt > Status: = https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-manyfolks-gaia-community-networks/ > Htmlized: = http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-manyfolks-gaia-community-networks-02 > Diff: = http://www.ietf.org/rfcdiff?url2=3Ddraft-manyfolks-gaia-community-networks= -02 >=20 > The structure has been modified, and many parts have been improved. In = addition, it includes a number of new references. >=20 > If you want to have a look to it and send your comments, it would be = fine. >=20 > Thanks a lot to the contributors (some of them new)! >=20 > Jose >=20 >> -----Mensaje original----- >> De: internet-drafts@ietf.org [mailto:internet-drafts@ietf.org] >> Enviado el: mi=C3=A9rcoles, 21 de enero de 2015 18:17 >> Para: Carlos Rey-Moreno; Leandro Navarro; Carlos Rey-Moreno; Andres = Arcia- >> Moret; Ermanno Pietrosemoli; Arjuna Sathiaseelan; Arjuna = Sathiaseelan; Bart >> Braem; Leandro Navarro; Ermanno Pietrosemoli; Bart Braem; Jose = Saldana; Marco >> Zennaro; Jose Saldana; Marco Zennaro; Andres Arcia-Moret >> Asunto: New Version Notification for = draft-manyfolks-gaia-community-networks- >> 02.txt >>=20 >>=20 >> A new version of I-D, draft-manyfolks-gaia-community-networks-02.txt >> has been successfully submitted by Jose Saldana and posted to the = IETF >> repository. >>=20 >> Name: draft-manyfolks-gaia-community-networks >> Revision: 02 >> Title: Alternative Network Deployments. Taxonomy and = characterization >> Document date: 2015-01-21 >> Group: Individual Submission >> Pages: 33 >> URL: = http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-manyfolks-gaia-community- >> networks-02.txt >> Status: = https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-manyfolks-gaia-community- >> networks/ >> Htmlized: = http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-manyfolks-gaia-community-networks-02 >> Diff: = http://www.ietf.org/rfcdiff?url2=3Ddraft-manyfolks-gaia-community- >> networks-02 >>=20 >> Abstract: >> This document presents a taxonomy of "Alternative Network >> deployments", and a set of definitions and shared characteristics. >> This term includes a set of network access models emerged in the = last >> decade with the aim of bringing Internet connectivity to people, >> using topological, architectural and business models different from >> the so-called "traditional" ones, where a company deploys the = network >> infrastructure for connecting the users, who pay for it. >>=20 >> Several initiatives throughout the world have built large scale >> networks that are alternative to the traditional network operator >> deployments using predominately wireless technologies (including = long >> distance) due to the reduced cost of using the unlicensed spectrum. >> Wired technologies such as Fiber are also used in some of these >> alternate networks. There are several types of such alternate >> network: networks such as community networks are self-organized and >> decentralized networks wholly owned by the community; networks = owned >> by individuals who act as wireless internet service providers >> (WISPs), networks owned by individuals but leased out to network >> operators who use such networks as a low-cost medium to reach the >> underserved population and finally there are networks that provide >> connectivity by sharing wireless resources of the users. >>=20 >> The emergence of these networks can be motivated by different = causes >> such as the reluctance, or the impossibility, of network operators = to >> provide wired and cellular infrastructures to rural/remote areas. = In >> these cases, the networks have self sustainable business models = that >> provide more localised communication services as well as Internet >> backhaul support through peering agreements with traditional = network >> operators. Some other times, networks are built as a complement = and >> an alternative to commercial Internet access provided by >> "traditional" network operators. >>=20 >> The present classification considers different existing network >> models such as Community Networks, open wireless services, user- >> extensible services, traditional local Internet Service Providers >> (ISPs), new global ISPs, etc. Different criteria are used in order >> to build a classification as e.g., the ownership of the equipment, >> the way the network is organized, the participatory model, the >> extensibility, if they are driven by a community, a company or a >> local (public or private) stakeholder, etc. >>=20 >> According to the developed taxonomy, a characterization of each = kind >> of network is presented, in terms of specific network = characteristics >> related to architecture, organization, etc. >>=20 >>=20 >>=20 >>=20 >> Please note that it may take a couple of minutes from the time of = submission until >> the htmlized version and diff are available at tools.ietf.org. >>=20 >> The IETF Secretariat >=20 >=20 > _______________________________________________ > gaia mailing list > gaia@irtf.org > https://irtf.org/mailman/listinfo/gaia --Apple-Mail=_7E89500C-A8E3-48C5-AFC6-49A0E4FAD250 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="signature.asc" Content-Type: application/pgp-signature; name="signature.asc" Content-Description: Message signed with OpenPGP using GPGMail -----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE----- Comment: GPGTools - https://gpgtools.org iQIcBAEBCgAGBQJU02MvAAoJEE+uAxYl6UzoHIAP/3cgfJA2b4LRqavAtQ3nKcGP 7G23HmiEK5bv+bigUbEI5qtYy+ZzqJbH/Y8Cv+1K2OsZcd42iITeSIbDCE77Ht0f UwnuEUVjMJuRfmtwK3eGCyweZE0oKvBPx/DOtVC03QtcHF25pfeDZMI7gU+oNSGg 9iPVCE1z8uM5HrX4K7Ws8xYH4B80WJLLbAIX3klv3qhrrYwjAMYY1otc64emXJva yUBbiUnjEnNQWK9vRIN2gYjMRX7/UiW7RO2DdtN0J0396zAtCNESFHQMjpdQh19S lg9/b/KwPhw0jGzR092BcVJss2UVz2bkAR/j3wOQlb2JjfF0Ld3z2xt42Ls30+RM RREPaWcTl57j2xQO4CGRWjkwb+ryNcVSKFjBc44KEEAKQROdf1IyW/9XjN6jqrAh /AeKJyQZ7adIuSwiowlnF4XTIleTQRT2ZiMJZUc0fkQt8TMuFS3SfPEWycJDFFAw az/i9pn2SSas6TIe3ZLj4lou8X3/hLmMv/cInzLy5TIOPUxvbpcJ+cCVUUuVgf3W i4Weoz5wVuV3BVkS5iKhIGjUak/rwzoL02f+/cu4jyOxOydmnD13qqC0xChLdvvD Gn+RcMAlyePZ+ldyoCIEzeNPyrDZ98sSiyCVRq8E9M4rSdQnIDOUzGFc+GEUpcL9 DWq+MBSF88pj2WcKcYpN =faug -----END PGP SIGNATURE----- --Apple-Mail=_7E89500C-A8E3-48C5-AFC6-49A0E4FAD250-- From nobody Fri Feb 6 03:58:01 2015 Return-Path: X-Original-To: gaia@ietfa.amsl.com Delivered-To: gaia@ietfa.amsl.com Received: from localhost (ietfa.amsl.com [127.0.0.1]) by ietfa.amsl.com (Postfix) with ESMTP id 5589A1A0263 for ; Fri, 6 Feb 2015 03:57:53 -0800 (PST) X-Virus-Scanned: amavisd-new at amsl.com X-Spam-Flag: NO X-Spam-Score: 1.798 X-Spam-Level: * X-Spam-Status: No, score=1.798 tagged_above=-999 required=5 tests=[BAYES_50=0.8, GB_AFFORDABLE=1, GB_I_LETTER=-2, GB_SUMOF=1, J_BACKHAIR_11=1, SPF_HELO_PASS=-0.001, SPF_PASS=-0.001] autolearn=no Received: from mail.ietf.org ([4.31.198.44]) by localhost (ietfa.amsl.com [127.0.0.1]) (amavisd-new, port 10024) with ESMTP id uwUK9F-z_Bla for ; Fri, 6 Feb 2015 03:57:42 -0800 (PST) Received: from na01-bn1-obe.outbound.protection.outlook.com (mail-bn1bon0613.outbound.protection.outlook.com [IPv6:2a01:111:f400:fc10::1:613]) (using TLSv1.2 with cipher ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA384 (256/256 bits)) (No client certificate requested) by ietfa.amsl.com (Postfix) with ESMTPS id B06371A01BA for ; Fri, 6 Feb 2015 03:57:41 -0800 (PST) Received: from [IPv6:2001:8b0:6467:1:6024:1274:244a:c16c] (2001:8b0:6467:1:6024:1274:244a:c16c) by DM2PR06MB606.namprd06.prod.outlook.com (10.141.177.19) with Microsoft SMTP Server (TLS) id 15.1.81.19; Fri, 6 Feb 2015 11:57:12 +0000 MIME-Version: 1.0 (Mac OS X Mail 8.2 \(2070.6\)) Content-Type: multipart/signed; boundary="Apple-Mail=_A45B33E2-52C2-4BC5-8BD5-DB801B120D67"; protocol="application/pgp-signature"; micalg=pgp-sha512 X-Pgp-Agent: GPGMail 2.5b4 From: Matthew Ford In-Reply-To: <72a801d0359e$c1c14c80$4543e580$@unizar.es> Date: Fri, 6 Feb 2015 11:56:56 +0000 Message-ID: References: <20150121171650.3309.77447.idtracker@ietfa.amsl.com> <72a801d0359e$c1c14c80$4543e580$@unizar.es> To: Jose Saldana X-Mailer: Apple Mail (2.2070.6) X-Originating-IP: [2001:8b0:6467:1:6024:1274:244a:c16c] X-ClientProxiedBy: DB4PR05CA0023.eurprd05.prod.outlook.com (25.160.40.33) To DM2PR06MB606.namprd06.prod.outlook.com (10.141.177.19) Authentication-Results: unizar.es; dkim=none (message not signed) header.d=none; X-Microsoft-Antispam: UriScan:; X-Microsoft-Antispam: BCL:0;PCL:0;RULEID:;SRVR:DM2PR06MB606; X-Exchange-Antispam-Report-Test: UriScan:; X-Exchange-Antispam-Report-CFA-Test: BCL:0; PCL:0; RULEID:(601004); 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charset=us-ascii Hi Jose, > On 21 Jan 2015, at 17:21, Jose Saldana wrote: >=20 > Hi all, >=20 > We have just updated (and uploaded) a new version of the "Manyfolks = draft": Alternative Network Deployments. Taxonomy and characterization. >=20 > URL: = http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-manyfolks-gaia-community-network= s-02.txt >=20 8< snip >8 >=20 > If you want to have a look to it and send your comments, it would be = fine. >=20 Sure! A general observation: I find the taxonomical aspect a bit lacking at = present. I would like to have a sharper identification of the = characteristics of identified alternative network types that = distinguishes them. Is it the commercial model? Is it the centralisation = or decentralisation of network management? The descriptions are fine as = far as they go, but if there's something unique about the different = types that clearly distinguishes them it would help to call that out = better. Maybe a matrix of the various identified types of network and = some of the important characteristics would be appropriate. Some more detailed comments inline: >=20 >=20 >=20 > Global Access to the Internet for All J. Saldana, = Ed. > Internet-Draft University of = Zaragoza > Intended status: Informational A. = Arcia-Moret > Expires: July 25, 2015 Universidad de Los = Andes > B. = Braem > = iMinds > L. = Navarro > U. Politecnica = Catalunya > E. = Pietrosemoli > = ICTP > C. = Rey-Moreno > University of the Western = Cape > A. = Sathiaseelan > University of = Cambridge > M. = Zennaro > Abdus Salam = ICTP > January 21, = 2015 >=20 Please review: https://www.rfc-editor.org/policy.html#policy.authlist I suggest you may want to consider identifying a single Editor and = moving other authors to a Contributing authors section. >=20 > Alternative Network Deployments. Taxonomy and characterization Given how much of the document is dedicated to discussing the = technologies employed in alternative networks, and their architecture, I = wonder about extending the title, e.g. "Alternative Networks: Taxonomy, characterization, technologies and = architectures" > draft-manyfolks-gaia-community-networks-02 >=20 > Abstract >=20 > This document presents a taxonomy of "Alternative Network > deployments", and a set of definitions and shared characteristics. It also discusses the technologies employed in these network = deployments, and their differing architectural characteristics. > This term includes a set of network access models emerged in the = last s/models emerged/models that have emerged/ > decade with the aim of bringing Internet connectivity to people, > using topological, architectural and business models different from > the so-called "traditional" ones, where a company deploys the = network s/deploys/deploys or leases/ > infrastructure for connecting the users, who pay for it. Maybe s/who pay for it/who pay a subscription fee to be connected and = make use of it/ > Several initiatives throughout the world have built large scale > networks that are alternative to the traditional network operator > deployments using predominately wireless technologies (including = long s/predominately/predominantly > distance) due to the reduced cost of using the unlicensed spectrum. > Wired technologies such as Fiber are also used in some of these > alternate networks. There are several types of such alternate > network: networks such as community networks are self-organized and > decentralized networks wholly owned by the community; networks = owned > by individuals who act as wireless internet service providers > (WISPs), networks owned by individuals but leased out to network > operators who use such networks as a low-cost medium to reach the > underserved population and finally there are networks that provide > connectivity by sharing wireless resources of the users. >=20 > The emergence of these networks can be motivated by different = causes > such as the reluctance, or the impossibility, of network operators = to >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 1] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > provide wired and cellular infrastructures to rural/remote areas. = In > these cases, the networks have self sustainable business models = that > provide more localised communication services as well as Internet > backhaul support through peering agreements with traditional = network > operators. Some other times, networks are built as a complement = and > an alternative to commercial Internet access provided by > "traditional" network operators. >=20 > The present classification considers different existing network > models such as Community Networks, open wireless services, user- > extensible services, traditional local Internet Service Providers > (ISPs), new global ISPs, etc. Different criteria are used in order > to build a classification as e.g., the ownership of the equipment, > the way the network is organized, the participatory model, the > extensibility, if they are driven by a community, a company or a > local (public or private) stakeholder, etc. >=20 > According to the developed taxonomy, a characterization of each = kind > of network is presented, in terms of specific network = characteristics > related to architecture, organization, etc. >=20 > Status of This Memo >=20 > This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the > provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. >=20 > Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering > Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute > working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current = Internet- > Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. >=20 > Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six = months > and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at = any > time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference > material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." >=20 > This Internet-Draft will expire on July 25, 2015. >=20 > Copyright Notice >=20 > Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the > document authors. All rights reserved. >=20 > This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal > Provisions Relating to IETF Documents > (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of > publication of this document. Please review these documents > carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with = respect >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 2] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > to this document. Code Components extracted from this document = must > include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of > the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as > described in the Simplified BSD License. >=20 > Table of Contents >=20 > 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 4 > 1.1. Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 5 > 2. Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 5 > 2.1. Community Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 5 > 2.1.1. Free Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 6 > 2.2. Wireless Internet Service Providers WISPs . . . . . . . . = 7 > 2.3. Shared infrastructure model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 7 > 2.4. Crowdshared approaches, led by the people and third party > stakeholders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 8 > 2.5. Testbeds for research purposes . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 9 > 3. Scenarios where Alternative Networks are deployed . . . . . . = 9 > 3.1. Digital Divide and Alternative Networks . . . . . . . . . = 9 > 3.2. Urban vs. rural areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 11 > 4. Technologies employed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 12 > 4.1. Wired . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 12 > 4.2. Wireless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 12 > 4.2.1. Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 13 > 4.2.2. Link length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 14 > 4.2.2.1. Line-of-Sight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 14 > 4.2.2.2. Transmitted and Received Power . . . . . . . . . = 15 > 4.2.2.3. Medium Access Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 16 > 4.2.3. Layer 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 16 > 4.2.3.1. 802.11 (Wi-Fi) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 16 > 4.2.3.2. GSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 18 > 4.2.3.3. Dynamic Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 18 > 5. Network and architecture issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 20 > 5.1. Layer 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 20 > 5.1.1. IP addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 20 > 5.1.2. Routing protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 20 > 5.1.2.1. Traditional routing protocols . . . . . . . . . . = 21 > 5.1.2.2. Mesh routing protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 21 > 5.2. Upper layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 21 > 5.2.1. Services provided by Alternative Networks . . . . . . = 22 > 5.2.1.1. Intranet services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 22 > 5.2.1.2. Access to the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 23 > 5.3. Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 23 > 6. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 24 > 7. Contributing Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 24 > 8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 25 > 9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 25 > 10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 25 >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 3] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > 10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 25 > 10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 28 > Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 32 >=20 > 1. Introduction >=20 > Several initiatives throughout the world have built large scale > networks that are alternative to the traditional network operator > deployments using predominately wireless technologies (including = long s/predominately/predominantly > distance) due to the reduced cost of using the unlicensed spectrum. > Wired technologies such as Fiber are also used in some of these > alternate networks. There are several types of such alternate > network: networks such as community networks are self-organized and > decentralized networks wholly owned by the community; networks = owned > by individuals who act as wireless internet service providers > (WISPs), networks owned by individuals but leased out to network > operators who use such networks as a low cost medium to reach the > underserved population and finally there are networks that provide > connectivity by sharing wireless resources of the users. >=20 > The emergence of these networks can be motivated by different = causes, > as the reluctance, or the impossibility, of network operators to > provide wired and cellular infrastructures to rural/remote areas > [Pietrosemoli]. In these cases, the networks have self sustainable > business models that provide more localised communication services = as > well as Internet backhaul support through peering agreements with > traditional network operators. Some other times, they are built as = a > complement and an alternative to commercial Internet access = provided > by "traditional" network operators. >=20 > One of the aims of the Global Access to the Internet for All (GAIA) > IRTF initiative is "to document and share deployment experiences = and > research results to the wider community through scholarly > publications, white papers, Informational and Experimental RFCs, > etc." In line with this objective, this document is intended to > propose a classification of these "Alternative Network = deployments". > This term includes a set of network access models emerged in the = last s/models emerged/models that have emerged/ > decade with the aim of bringing Internet connectivity to people, > following topological, architectural and business models different > from the so-called "traditional" ones, where a company deploys the > infrastructure connecting the users, who pay for it. The document = is Maybe s/who pay for it/who pay a subscription fee to be connected and = make use of it/ > intended to be largely descriptive providing a broad overview of > initiatives, technologies and approaches employed in these = networks. > Research references describing each kind of network are also > provided. >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 4] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > 1.1. Requirements Language >=20 > The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", > "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in = this > document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. This document is not on the standards track, so this section is not = necessary. Also, capitalisation of words like CAN and MAY later in the = draft is not appropriate. >=20 > 2. Classification >=20 > This section classifies Alternative Networks (ANs) according to = their > intended usage. Each of them has different incentive structures, > maybe common technological challenges, but most importantly > interesting usage challenges which feeds into the incentives as = well > as the technological challenges. >=20 > This classification is agnostic from the technical point of view. > Technology in this case must be taken as implementation. Moreover, > many of these networks are implemented in a way that several > technologies (Ad-Hoc Wi-Fi, Infrastructure Wi-Fi, Optical Fiber, > IPv4, IPv6, RFC1918, OLSR, BMX6, etc.) coexist. I wonder if it might be helpful for the reader to include a loose = definition of 'traditional' network, to compare these alternatives with. = What is the defining characteristic that makes these alternatives = different? >=20 > 2.1. Community Networks >=20 > Community Networks are large-scale, distributed, self-managed > networks sharing these characteristics: >=20 > - They are built and organized in a decentralized and open manner. >=20 > - They start and grow organically, they are open to participation > from everyone, sometimes agreeing to an open peering agreement. > Community members directly contribute active network infrastructure > (not just passive infrastructure). >=20 > - Knowledge about building and maintaining the network and = ownership > of the network itself is decentralized and open. Community members > have an obvious and direct form of organizational control over the > overall operation of the network in their community (not just their > own participation in the network). >=20 > - The network CAN serve as a backhaul for providing a whole range = of > services and applications, from completely free to even commercial > services. >=20 No need to capitalise CAN. This document is not standards track or = normative. This applies throughout the document, but I'm not going to = comment every time. > Hardware and software used in Community Networks CAN be very = diverse, > even inside one network. A Community Network CAN have both wired = and > wireless links. The network CAN be managed by multiple routing > protocols or network topology management systems. >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 5] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > These networks grow organically, since they are formed by the > aggregation of nodes belonging to different users. A minimum > governance infrastructure is required in order to coordinate IP > addressing, routing, etc. A clear example of this kind of = Community > Network is described in [Braem]. These networks are effective in > enhancing and extending digital Internet rights following a > participatory model. I couldn't parse the final sentence of that para. >=20 > The fact of the users adding new infrastructure (i.e. = extensibility) > can be used to formulate another definition: A Community Network is = a > network in which any participant in the system may add link = segments > to the network in such a way that the new network segments can > support multiple nodes and adopt the same overall characteristics = as > those of the joined network, including the capacity to further = extend > the network. Once these link segments are joined to the network, > there is no longer a meaningful distinction between the previous > extent of the network and the new extent of the network. >=20 > In Community Networks, the profit can only be made by services and > not by the infrastructure itself, because the infrastructure is > neutral, free, and open (traditional Internet Service Providers, > ISPs, base their business on the control of the infrastructure). = In > Community Networks, everybody keeps the ownership of what he/she = has > contributed. See earlier comment about providing a definition of traditional ISP. If = there are other defining characteristics, it could help to identify them = up front. >=20 > Community Networks MAY also be called "Free Networks" or even > "Network Commons". [FNF]. The majority of Community Networks > accomplishes the definition of Free Network, included in the next > subsection. >=20 > 2.1.1. Free Networks >=20 > A definition of Free Network (which MAY be the same as Community > Network) is proposed by the Free Network Foundation (see > http://thefnf.org) as: >=20 > "A free network equitably grants the following freedoms to all: >=20 > Freedom 0 - The freedom to communicate for any purpose, without > discrimination, interference, or interception. >=20 > Freedom 1 - The freedom to grow, improve, communicate across, and > connect to the whole network. >=20 > Freedom 2- The freedom to study, use, remix, and share any network > communication mechanisms, in their most reusable forms." >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 6] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > The principles of Free, Open and Neutral Networks have also been > summarized (see http://guifi.net/en/FONCC) this way: >=20 > - You have the freedom to use the network for any purpose as long = as > you do not harm the operation of the network itself, the rights of > other users, or the principles of neutrality that allow contents = and > services to flow without deliberate interference. >=20 > - You have the right to understand the network, to know its > components, and to spread knowledge of its mechanisms and = principles. >=20 > - You have the right to offer services and content to the network = on > your own terms. >=20 > - You have the right to join the network, and the responsibility to > extend this set of rights to anyone according to these same terms. >=20 > 2.2. Wireless Internet Service Providers WISPs >=20 > WISPs are commercially-operated wireless Internet networks that > provide Internet and/or Voice Over Internet (VoIP) services. They > are most common in areas not covered by incumbent telcos or ISPs. > WISPs often use wireless point-to-point or point-to-multipoint in = the > unlicensed frequencies but licensed frequency use is common too > especially in regions where unlicensed spectrum is either perceived > as crowded or where unlicensed spectrum may have regulatory = barriers > impeding its use. >=20 > Most WISPs are operated by local companies responding to a = perceived > market gap. There is a small but growing number of WISPs, such as > AirJaldi [Airjaldi] in India that have expanded from local service > into multiple locations. What I miss in this section is some text that talks about why a WISP is = able to succeed where an incumbent or traditional ISP is not. If WISPs = are for-profit enterprises, then why are they able to make a return, or = why do incumbents choose not to? >=20 > Since 2006, the deployment of cloud-managed WISPs has been possible I think a sentence defining 'cloud-managed' would be helpful here. > with companies like Meraki and later OpenMesh and others. Until > recently, however, most of these services have been aimed at > industrialised markets. Everylayer [Everylayer], launched in 2014, > is the first cloud-managed WISP service aimed at emerging markets. >=20 > 2.3. Shared infrastructure model >=20 > These networks are owned by individuals but leased out to network > operators who use them as a low cost medium to reach the = underserved > population. >=20 >=20 Can you give a more expansive example. Do you mean something like FON (I = guess not as that is described in the next section)? How is this = different from an (M)VNO? >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 7] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > 2.4. Crowdshared approaches, led by the people and third party > stakeholders >=20 > These networks can be defined as a set of nodes whose owners share > common interests (e.g. sharing connectivity; resources; = peripherals) > regardless of their physical location. The node location exhibits = a > space and time correlation which is the basis to establish a robust > connectivity model over time. I couldn't really parse that last sentence. >=20 > These networks conform to the following approach: the home router > creates two wireless networks: one of them is normally used by the > owner, and the other one is public. A small fraction of the > bandwidth is allocated to the public network, to be employed by any > user of the service in the immediate area. Some examples are > described in [PAWS] and [Sathiaseelan_c]. Other example is > constituted by the networks created and managed by City Councils > (e.g., [Heer]). >=20 > In the same way, some companies [Fon] develop and sell Wi-Fi = routers > with a dual access: a Wi-Fi network for the user, and a shared one. > A user community is created, and people can join the network in > different ways: they can buy a router, so they share their = connection > and in turn they get access to all the routers associated to the > community. Some users can even get some revenue every time another > user connects to their Wi-Fi spot. Other users can just buy some > passes in order to use the network. Some telecommunications > operators can collaborate with the community, including in their > routers the possibility of creating these two networks. >=20 > A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is created for public traffic, so = it > is completely secure and separated from the owner's connection. = The > network capacity shared may employ a low priority, a = less-than-best- > effort or scavenger approach, so as not to harm the traffic of the > owner of the connection [Sathiaseelan_a]. >=20 > The elements involved in a crowd-shared network are summarised = below: >=20 > - Interest: a parameter capable of providing a measure (cost) of = the > attractiveness of a node towards a specific location, in a specific > instance in time. >=20 > - Resources: A physical or virtual element of a global system. For > instance, bandwidth; energy; data; devices. >=20 > - The owner: End users who sign up for the service and share their > network capacity. As a counterpart, they can access another = owners' > home access for free. The owner can be an end user or an entity >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 8] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > (e.g. operator; virtual operator; municipality) that is to be made > responsible for any actions concerning his/her device. >=20 > - The user: a legal entity or an individual using or requesting a > publicly available electronic communications' service for private = or > business purposes, without necessarily having subscribed to such > service. >=20 > - The Virtual Network Operator (VNO): An entity that acts in some > aspects as a network coordinator. It may provide services such as > initial authentication or registering, and eventually, trust > relationship storage. A VNO is not an ISP given that it does not > provide Internet access (e.g. infrastructure; naming). A VNO is > neither an Application Service Provider (ASP) since it does not > provide user services. Virtual Operators MAY also be stakeholders > with socio-environmental objectives. They CAN be a local = government, > grass root user communities, charities, or even content operators, > smart grid operators, etc. They are the ones who actually run the > service. >=20 > - Network operators, who have a financial incentive to lease out = the > unused capacity [Sathiaseelan_b] at lower cost to the VNOs. >=20 > VNOs pay the sharers and the network operators, thus creating an > incentive structure for all the actors: the end users get money for > sharing their network, the network operators are paid by the VNOs, > who in turn accomplish their socio-environmental role. >=20 > 2.5. Testbeds for research purposes >=20 > In some cases, the initiative to start the network is not from the > community, but from a research entity (e.g. a university), with the > aim of using it for research purposes [Samanta], [Bernardi]. This section is kind of amusing to me, given the origins of the = Internet. Maybe it is Comcast, BT, Telefonica et al. that are the = 'Alternative Networks'? :) >=20 > 3. Scenarios where Alternative Networks are deployed >=20 > Alternative Network deployments are present in every part of the > world. Even in some high-income countries, these networks have = been > built as an alternative to commercial ones managed by traditional > network operators. This section discusses the scenarios where > Alternative Networks have been deployed. >=20 > 3.1. Digital Divide and Alternative Networks >=20 > There is no definition for what a developing country represents = that > has been recognized internationally, but the term is generally used > to describe a nation with a low level of material well-being. In > this sense, one of the most commonly used classification is the one >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 9] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > by the World Bank, who ranks countries according to their Gross > National Income (GNI) per Capita: low income, middle income, and = high > income, being those falling within the low and middle income groups > considered developing economies. Developing countries have also = been > defined as those which are in transition from traditional = lifestyles > towards the modern lifestyle which began in the Industrial > Revolution. Additionally, the Human Development Index, which > considers not only the GNI but also life expectancy and education, > has been proposed by the United Nations to rank countries according > to their well-being and not solely based on economic terms. These > classifications are used to give strong signals to the = international > community about the need of special concessions in support of these > countries, implying a correlation between development and increased > well-being. >=20 > However, at the beginning of the 90's the debates about how to > quantify development in a country were shaken by the appearance of > Internet and mobile phones, which many authors consider the = beginning > of the Information Society. With the beginning of this Digital > Revolution, defining development based on Industrial Society = concepts > started to be challenged, and links between digital development and > its impact on human development started to flourish. The following > dimensions are considered to be meaningful when measuring the = digital > development state of a country: infrastructures (availability and > affordability); ICT (Information and Communications Technology) > sector (human capital and technological industry); digital = literacy; > legal and regulatory framework; and content and services. The lack > or less extent of digital development in one or more of these > dimensions is what has been referred as Digital Divide. This = divide > is a new vector of inequality which - as it happened during the > Industrial Revolution - generates a lot of progress at the expense = of > creating a lot economic poverty and exclusion. The Digital Divide = is > considered to be a consequence of other socio-economic divides, > while, at the same time, a reason for their rise. >=20 > In this context, the so-called "developing countries", in order not > to be left behind of this incipient digital revolution, motivated = the > World Summit of the Information Society which aimed at achieving "a > people-centred, inclusive and development-oriented Information > Society, where everyone can create, access, utilize and share > information and knowledge, enabling individuals, communities and > peoples to achieve their full potential in promoting their > sustainable development and improving their quality of life" = [WSIS], > and called upon "governments, private sector, civil society and > international organisations" to actively engage to accomplish it > [WSIS]. >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 10] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > Most efforts from governments and international organizations = focused > initially on improving and extending the existing infrastructure in > order not to leave their population behind. As an example, one of > the goals of the Digital Agenda for Europe [DAE] is "to increase > regular internet usage from 60% to 75% by 2015, and from 41% to 60% > among disadvantaged people." >=20 > Universal Access and Service plans have taken different forms in > different countries over the years, with very uneven success rates, > but in most cases inadequate to the scale of the problem. Given = its > incapacity to solve the problem, some governments included = Universal > Service and Access obligations to mobile network operators when > liberalizing the telecommunications market. In combination with = the > overwhelming and unexpected uptake of mobile phones by poor people, > this has mitigated the low access indicators existing in many > developing countries at the beginning of the 90s [Rendon]. >=20 > Although the contribution made by mobile network operators in > decreasing the access gap is undeniable, their model presents some > constraints that limit the development outcomes that increased > connectivity promises to bring. Prices, tailored for the more > affluent part of the population, remain unaffordable to many, who > invest large percentages of their disposable income in > communications. Additionally, the cost of prepaid packages, the = only > option available for the informal economies existing throughout > developing countries, is high compared with the rate longer-term > subscribers pay. >=20 > The consolidation of many Alternative Networks (e.g. Community > Networks) in high income countries sets a precedent for civil = society > members from the so-called developing countries to become more = active > in the search for alternatives to provide themselves with = affordable > access. Furthermore, Alternative Networks could contribute to = other > dimensions of the digital development like increased human capital > and the creation of contents and services targeting the locality of > each network. >=20 > 3.2. Urban vs. rural areas >=20 > The Digital Divide presented in the previous section is not only > present between countries, but within them too. This is specially > the case for rural inhabitants, which represents approximately 55% = of > the world's population, from which 78% inhabit in developing > countries. Although it is impossible to generalize among them, = there > exist some common features that have determined the availability of > ICT infrastructure in these regions. The disposable income of = their > dwellers is lower than those inhabiting urban areas, with many > surviving on a subsistence economy. Many of them are located in >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 11] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > geographies difficult to access and exposed to extreme weather > conditions. This has resulted in the almost complete lack of > electrical infrastructure. This context, together with their low > population density, discourages telecommunications operators to > provide similar services to those provided to urban dwellers, since > they do not deem them profitable. >=20 > The cost of the wireless infrastructure required to set up a = network, > including powering it via solar energy, is within the range of > availability if not of individuals at least of entire communities. > The social capital existing in these areas can allow for = Alternative > Network set-ups where a reduced number of nodes may cover = communities > whose dwellers share the cost of the infrastructure and the gateway > and access it via inexpensive wireless devices. Some examples are > presented in [Pietrosemoli] and [Bernardi]. >=20 > In this case, the lack of awareness and confidence of rural > communities to embark themselves in such tasks can become major > barriers to their deployment. Scarce technical skills in these > regions have been also pointed as a challenge for their success, = but > the proliferation of urban Community Networks, where scarcity of > spectrum, scale, and heterogeneity of devices pose tremendous > challenges to their stability and the services they aim to provide, > has fuelled the creation of robust low-cost low-consumption low- > complexity off-the-shelf wireless devices which make much easier = the > deployment and maintenance of these alternative infrastructures in > rural areas. >=20 > 4. Technologies employed >=20 > 4.1. Wired >=20 > In many (developed or developing) countries it may happen that > national service providers may decline to provide connectivity to > tiny and isolated villages. So in some cases the villagers have > created their own optical fiber networks. It is the case of > Lowenstedt in Germany [Lowenstedt]. >=20 > 4.2. Wireless >=20 > Different wireless technologies [WNDW] can be employed in = Alternative > Network deployments. Below we summarise topics to be considered in > such deployments: >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 12] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > 4.2.1. Antennas >=20 > Three kinds of antennas are suitable to be used in these networks: > omnidirectional, directional and high gain antennas. >=20 > For local access, omnidirectional antennas are the most useful, = since > they provide the same coverage in all directions of the plane in > which they are located. Above and below this plane, the received > signal will diminish, so the maximum benefits are obtained when the > client is at approximately the same height as the Access Point. >=20 > When using an omnidirectional antenna outdoors to provide > connectivity to a large area, people often select high gain = antennas > located at the highest structure available to extend the coverage. > In many cases this is counterproductive, since a high gain > omnidirectional antenna will have a very narrow beamwidth in the > vertical plane, meaning that clients that are below the plane of = the > antenna will receive a very weak signal (and by the reciprocity > property of all antennas, the antenna will also receive a feeble > signal from the client). A moderate gain omnidirectional of about = 8 > to 10 dBi is normally preferable. Higher gain omnidirectional > antennas are only advisable when the farthest way client is roughly > in the same plane. >=20 > For indoor clients, omnidirectional antennas are generally fine, > because the numerous reflections normally found in indoor > environments negate the advantage of using directional antennas. >=20 > For outdoor clients, directional antennas can be quite useful to > extend coverage to an Access Point fitted with an omnidirectional > one. >=20 > When building point-to-point links, the highest gain antennas are = the > best choice, since their narrow beamwidth mitigates interference = from > other users and can provide the longest links [Flickenger], > [Zennaro]. >=20 > 24 to 34 dBi antennas are commercially available at both the > unlicensed 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands, and even higher gain antennas = can > be found in the newer unlicensed bands at 17 GHz and 24 GHz. >=20 > Despite the fact that the free space loss is directly proportional = to > the square of the frequency, it is normally advisable to use higher > frequencies for point-to-point links when there is a clear line of > sight, because it is normally easier to get higher gain antennas at = 5 > GHz. Deploying high gain antennas at both ends will more than > compensate for the additional free space loss. Furthermore, higher > frequencies can make do with lower altitude antenna placement since >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 13] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > the Fresnel ellipsoid (the volume around the optical line occuppied > by radio waves, which should be free from obstacles), is inversely > proportional to the square root of the frequency. >=20 > On the contrary, lower frequencies offer advantages when the line = of > sight is blocked because they can leverage diffraction to reach the > intended receiver. >=20 > It is common to find dual radio Access Points, at two different > frequency bands. One way of benefiting from this arrangement is to > attach a directional antenna to the high frequency radio for > connection to the backbone and an omnidirectional one to the lower > frequency to provide local access. >=20 > In the case of mesh networking, where the antenna should connect to > several other nodes, it is better to use omnidirectional antennas. >=20 > The same type of polarisation must be used at both ends of any = radio > link. For point-to-point links, some vendors use two radios > operating at the same frequency but with orthogonal polarisations, > thus doubling the achievable throughput, and also offering added > protection to multipath and other transmission impairments. >=20 > 4.2.2. Link length >=20 > 4.2.2.1. Line-of-Sight >=20 > For short distance transmission, there is no strict requirement of > line of sight between the transmitter and the receiver, and = multipath > can guarantee communication despite the existence of obstacles in = the > direct path. >=20 > For longer distances, the first requirement is the existence of an > unobstructed line of sight between the transmitter and the = receiver. > For very long path the earth curvature is an obstacle that must be > cleared, but the trajectory of the radio beam is not strictly a > straight line due to the bending of the rays as a consequence of = non- > uniformities of the atmosphere. Most of the time this bending will > mean that the radio horizon extends further than the optical = horizon. >=20 > Another factor to be considered is that the Fresnel zone (the = volume > around the optical line) must be unencumbered from obstacles for = the > maximum signal to be captured at the receiver. The size of the > Fresnel ellipsoid grows with the distance between the end points = and > with the wavelength of the signal, which in turn is inversely > proportional to the frequency. >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 14] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > For optimum signal reception the end points must be high enough to > clear any obstacle in the path and leave extra "elbow room" for the > Fresnel zone. This can be achieved by using suitable masts at = either > end, or by taking advantage of existing structures or hills. >=20 > 4.2.2.2. Transmitted and Received Power >=20 > Once a clear radio-electric line of sight (including the Fresnel = zone > clearance) is obtained, one must ascertain that the received power = is > well above the sensitivity of the receiver, by what is known as the > "link margin". The greater the link margin, the more reliable the > link. For mission critical applications 20 dB margin is suggested, > but for non critical ones 10 dB might suffice. >=20 > The sensitivity of the receiver decreases with the transmission > speed, so more power is needed at greater transmission speeds. >=20 > The received power is determined by the transmitted power, the gain > of the transmitting and receiving antennas and the propagation = loss. >=20 > The propagation loss is the sum of the free space loss = (proportional > to the square of the the frequency and the square of the distance), > plus additional factors like attenuation in the atmosphere by gases > or meteorological effects (which are strongly frequency dependent), > multipath and diffraction losses. >=20 > Multipath is more pronounced in trajectories over water. If they > cannot be avoided special countermeasures should be taken. >=20 > In order to achieve a given link margin (also called "fade = margin"), > one can: >=20 > a) Increase the output power.The maximum transmitted power is > specified by each country's regulation, and for unlicensed > frequencies is much lower than for licensed frequencies. >=20 > b) Increase the antenna gain. There is no limit in the gain of the > receiving antenna, but high gain antennas are bulkier, present more > wind resistance and require sturdy mounts to comply with tighter > alignment requirements. The transmitter antenna gain is also > regulated and can be different for point-to-point as for point-to- > multipoint links. Many countries impose a limit in the combination > of transmitted power and antenna gain, EIRP (Equivalent = Isotropically > Irradiated Power) which can be different for point-to- point or > point-to-multipoint links. >=20 > c) Reduce the propagation loss, by using a more favorable frequency > or a shorter path. >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 15] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > d) Use a more sensitive receiver. Receiver sensitivity can be > improved by using better circuits, but it is ultimately limited by > the thermal noise, which is proportional to temperature and > bandwidth. One can increase the sensitivity by using a smaller > receiving bandwidth, or by settling to lower throughput even in the > same receiver bandwidth. This step is often done automatically in > many protocols, in which the transmission speed can be reduced from > 150 Mbit/s to 6 Mbit/s if the receiver power is not enough to = sustain > the maximum throughput. >=20 > 4.2.2.3. Medium Access Protocol >=20 > A completely different limiting factor is related to the medium > access protocol. Wi-Fi was designed for short distance, and the > transmitter expects the reception of an acknowledgment for each > transmitted packet in a certain amount of time; if the waiting time > is exceeded, the packet is retransmitted. This will significantly > reduce the throughput at long distance, so for long distance > applications it is better to use a different medium access = technique, > in which the receiver does not wait for an acknowledgement of the > transited packet. This strategy of TDMA (Time Domain Multiple > Access) has been adopted by many equipment vendors who offer > proprietary protocols alongside the standard Wi-Fi in order to > increase the throughput at longer distances. Low cost equipment > using TDMA can offer high throughput at distances over 100 > kilometers. >=20 > 4.2.3. Layer 2 >=20 > 4.2.3.1. 802.11 (Wi-Fi) >=20 > Wireless standards ensure interoperability and usability to those = who > design, deploy and manage wireless networks. The standards used in > the vast majority of Community Networks come from the IEEE Standard > Association's IEEE 802 Working Group. >=20 > The standard we are most interested in is 802.11 a/b/g/n, > [IEEE.802-11A.1999], [IEEE.802-11B.1999], [IEEE.802-11G.2003], > [IEEE.802-11N.2009] as it defines the protocol for Wireless LAN. > Different 802.11 amendments have been released, as shown in the = table > below, also including their frequencies and approximate ranges. >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 16] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > |802.11| Release | Freq |BWdth | Data Rate per | Approx range (m) = | > |prot | date | (GHz)|(MHz) |stream (Mbit/s) | indoor | outdoor = | > = +------+---------+------+------+----------------+--------+----------+ > | a |Sep 1999 | 5 | 20 | 6,9,12, 18, 24,| 35 | 120 = | > | | | | | 36, 48, 54 | | = | > | b |Sep 1999 | 2.4 | 20 | 1, 2, 5.5, 11 | 35 | 140 = | > | g |Jun 2003 | 2.4 | 20 | 6,9,12, 18, 24,| 38 | 140 = | > | | | | | 36, 48, 54 | | = | > | n |Oct 2009 | 2.4/5| 20 | 7.2, 14.4, 21.7| 70 | 250 = | > | | | | | 28.9, 43.3, | | = | > | | | | | 57.8, 65, 72.2 | | = | > | n |Oct 2009 | 2.4/5| 40 | 15, 30, 45, 60,| 70 | 250 = | > | | | | | 90, 120, | | = | > | | | | | 135, 150 | | = | > | ac |Nov 2011 | 5 | 20 | Up to 87.6 | | = | > | ac |Nov 2011 | 5 | 40 | Up to 200 | | = | > | ac |Nov 2011 | 5 | 80 | Up to 433.3 | | = | > | ac |Nov 2011 | 5 | 160 | Up to 866.7 | | = | >=20 > In 2012 IEEE issued the 802.11-2012 Standard that consolidates all > the previous amendments. The document is freely downloadable from > IEEE Standards [IEEE]. >=20 > 4.2.3.1.1. Deployment planning for 802.11 wireless networks >=20 > Before packets can be forwarded and routed to the Internet, layers > one (the physical) and two (the data link) need to be connected. > Without link local connectivity, network nodes cannot talk to each > other and route packets. >=20 > To provide physical connectivity, wireless network devices MUST > operate in the same part of the radio spectrum. This means that > 802.11a radios will talk to 802.11a radios at around 5 GHz, and > 802.11b/g radios will talk to other 802.11b/g radios at around 2.4 > GHz. But an 802.11a device cannot interoperate with an 802.11b/g > device, since they use completely different parts of the > electromagnetic spectrum. More specifically, wireless interfaces > must agree on a common channel. If one 802.11b radio card is set = to > channel 2 while another is set to channel 11, then the radios = cannot > communicate with each other. >=20 > When two wireless interfaces are configured to use the same = protocol > on the same radio channel, then they are ready to negotiate data = link > layer connectivity. Each 802.11a/b/g device can operate in one of > four possible modes: >=20 > 1. Master mode (also called AP or infrastructure mode) is used to > create a service that looks like a traditional Access Point. The >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 17] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > wireless interface creates a network with a specified name (called > the SSID, Service Set IDentifier) and channel, and offers network > services on it. While in master mode, wireless interfaces manage = all > communications related to the network (authenticating wireless > clients, handling channel contention, repeating packets, etc.) > Wireless interfaces in master mode can only communicate with > interfaces that are associated with them in managed mode. >=20 > 2. Managed mode is sometimes also referred to as client mode. > Wireless interfaces in managed mode will join a network created by = a > master, and will automatically change their channel to match it. > They then present any necessary credentials to the master, and if > those credentials are accepted, they are associated with the = master. > Managed mode interfaces do not communicate with each other = directly, > and only communicate with an associated master. >=20 > 3. Ad-hoc mode creates a multipoint-to-multipoint network where > there is no single master node or AP. In ad-hoc mode, each = wireless > interface communicates directly with its neighbours. Nodes must be > in range of each other to communicate, and must agree on a network > name and channel. Ad-hoc mode is often also called Mesh = Networking. >=20 > 4. Monitor mode is used by some tools (such as Kismet) to = passively > listen to all radio traffic on a given channel. When in monitor > mode, wireless interfaces transmit no data. This is useful for > analysing problems on a wireless link or observing spectrum usage = in > the local area. Monitor mode is not used for normal = communications. >=20 > When implementing a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint link, one > radio will typically operate in master mode, while the other(s) > operate in managed mode. In a multipoint-to-multipoint mesh, the > radios all operate in ad-hoc mode so that they can communicate with > each other directly. Managed mode clients cannot communicate with > each other directly, so a high repeater site is required in master = or > ad-hoc mode. Ad-hoc is more flexible but has a number of = performance > issues as compared to using the master / managed modes. >=20 > 4.2.3.2. GSM >=20 > GSM has also been used in Alternative Networks as Layer 2 option, = as > explained in [Mexican]. >=20 > 4.2.3.3. Dynamic Spectrum >=20 > Some Alternative Networks make use of TV White Spaces - a set of = UHF > and VHF television frequencies that can be utilized by secondary > users in locations where it is unused by licensed primary users = such > as television broadcasters. Equipment that makes use of TV White >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 18] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > Spaces is required to detect the presence of existing unused TV > channels by means of a spectrum database and/or spectrum sensing in > order to ensure that no harmful interference is caused to primary > users. In order to smartly allocate interference-free channels to > the devices, cognitive radios are used which are able to modify = their > frequency, power and modulation techniques to meet the strict > operating conditions required for secondary users. >=20 > The use of the term "White Spaces" is often used to describe "TV > White Spaces" as the VHF and UHF television frequencies were the > first to be exploited on a secondary use basis. There are two > dominant standards for TV white space communication: (i) the = 802.11af > standard [IEEE.802-11AF.2013] - an adaptation of the 802.11 = standard > for TV white space bands and (ii) the IEEE 802.22 standard > [IEEE.802-22.2011] for long-range rural communication. >=20 > 4.2.3.3.1. 802.11af >=20 > 802.11af [IEEE.802-11AF.2013] is a modified version of the 802.11 > standard operating in TV White Space bands using Cognitive Radios = to > avoid interference with primary users. The standard is often > referred to as White-Fi or Super WiFi and was approved in February > 2014. 802.11af contains much of the advances of all the 802.11 > standards including recent advances in 802.11ac such as up to four > bonded channels, four spatial streams and very high rate 256-QAM > modulation but with improved in-building penetration and outdoor > coverage. The maximum data rate achievable is 426.7 Mbps for > countries with 6/7 MHz channels and 568.9 Mbps for countries with 8 > MHz channels. Coverage is typically limited to 1km although longer > range at lower throughput and using high gain antennas will be > possible. >=20 > Devices are designated as enabling stations (access points) or > dependent stations (clients). Enabling stations are authorized to > control the operation of a dependent station and securely access a > geolocation database. Once the enabling station has received a = list > of available white space channels it can announce a chosen channel = to > the dependent stations for them to communicate with the enabling > station. 802.11af also makes use of a registered location server - = a > local database that organizes the geographic location and operating > parameters of all enabling stations. >=20 > 4.2.3.3.2. 802.22 >=20 > 802.22 [IEEE.802-22.2011] is a standard developed specifically for > long range rural communications in TV white space frequencies and > first approved in July 2011. The standard is similar to the 802.16 > (WiMax) [IEEE.802-16.2008] standard with an added cognitive radio >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 19] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > ability. The maximum throughput of 802.22 is 22.6 Mbps for a = single > 8 MHz channel using 64-QAM modulation. The achievable range using > the default MAC scheme is 30 km, however 100 km is possible with > special scheduling techniques. The MAC of 802.22 is specifically > customized for long distances - for example, slots in a frame > destined for more distant CPEs are sent before slots destined for > nearby CPEs. >=20 > Base stations are required to have a GPS and a connection to the > Internet in order to query a geolocation spectrum database. Once = the > base station receives the allowed TV channels, it communicates a > preferred operating white space TV channel with the Client Premises > Equipment (CPE) devices. The standard also has a co-existence > mechanism that uses beacons to make other 802.22 base stations = aware > of the presence of a base station that is not part of the same > network. >=20 > 5. Network and architecture issues >=20 > 5.1. Layer 3 >=20 > 5.1.1. IP addressing >=20 > Most known Alternative Networks started in or around the year 2000. > IPv6 was fully specified by then, but almost all Alternative = Networks > still use IPv4. A survey [Avonts] indicated that IPv6 rollout > presents a challenge to Community Networks. >=20 > Most Community Networks use private IPv4 address ranges, as defined > by RFC 1918 [RFC1918]. The motivation for this was the lower cost > and the simplified IP allocation because of the large available > address ranges. >=20 > 5.1.2. Routing protocols >=20 > Alternative Networks are composed of possibly different layer 2 > devices, resulting in a mesh of nodes. Connection between = different > nodes is not guaranteed and the link stability can vary strongly = over > time. To tackle this, some Alternative Networks use mesh network > routing protocols while other networks use more traditional routing > protocols. Some networks operate multiple routing protocols in > parallel. For example, they use a mesh protocol inside different > islands and use traditional routing protocols to connect islands. >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 20] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > 5.1.2.1. Traditional routing protocols >=20 > The BGP protocol, as defined by RFC 4271 [RFC4271] is used by a > number of Community Networks, because of its well-studied behavior > and scalability. >=20 > For similar reasons, smaller networks opt to run the OSPF protocol, > as defined by RFC 2328 [RFC2328]. >=20 > 5.1.2.2. Mesh routing protocols >=20 > A large number of Alternative Networks use the OLSR routing = protocol > as defined in RFC 3626 [RFC3626]. The pro-active link state = routing > protocol is a good match with Alternative Networks because it has > good performance in mesh networks where nodes have multiple > interfaces. >=20 > The Better Approach To Mobile Adhoc Networking (BATMAN) [Abolhasan] > protocol was developed by members of the Freifunk community. The > protocol handles all routing at layer 2, creating one bridged > network. >=20 > Parallel to BGP, some networks also run the BMX6 protocol = [Neumann]. > This is an advanced version of the BATMAN protocol which is based = on > IPv6 and tries to exploit the social structure of Alternative > Networks. >=20 > 5.2. Upper layers >=20 > =46rom crowdshared perspective, and considering just regular TCP > connections during the critical sharing time, the Access Point > offering the service is likely to be the bottleneck of the > connection. This is the main concern of sharers, having several > implications. There should be an adequate Active Queue Management > (AQM) mechanism that implements a Less than Best Effort (LBE) = policy > for the user and protects the sharer. Achieving LBE behaviour > requires the appropriate tuning of the well known mechanisms such = as > ECN, or RED, or others more recent AQM mechanisms such as CoDel and > PIE that aid on keeping low latency RFC 6297 [RFC6297]. >=20 > The user traffic should not interfere with the sharer's traffic. > However, other bottlenecks besides client's access bottleneck may = not > be controlled by the previously mentioned protocols. Therefore, > recently proposed transport protocols like LEDBAT [Ros], [Komnios] > with the purpose of transporting scavenger traffic may be a = solution. > LEDBAT requires the cooperation of both the client and the server = to > achieve certain target delay, therefore controlling the impact of = the > user along all the path. >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 21] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > There are applications that manage aspects of the network from the > sharer side and from the client side. =46rom sharer's side, there = are > applications to centralise the management of the APs conforming the > network that have been recently proposed by means of SDN > [Sathiaseelan_a], [Suresh]. There are also other proposals such as > Wi2Me [Lampropulos] that manage the connection to several Community > Networks from the client's side. These applications have shown to > improve the client performance compared to a single-Community = Network > client. >=20 > On the other hand, transport protocols inside a multiple hop = wireless > mesh network are likely to suffer performance degradation for > multiple reasons, e.g., hidden terminal problem, unnecessary delays > on the TCP ACK clocking that decrease the throughout or route > changing [Hanbali]. There are some options for network > configuration. The implementation of an easy-to-adopt solution for > TCP over mesh networks may be implemented from two different > perspectives. One way is to use a TCP-proxy to transparently deal > with the different impairments (RFC 3135 [RFC3135]). Another way = is > to adopt end-to-end solutions for monitoring the connection delay = so > that the receiver adapts the TCP reception window (rwnd) > [Castignani_c]. Similarly, the ACK Congestion Control (ACKCC) > mechanism RFC 5690 [RFC5690] could deal with TCP-ACK clocking > impairments due to inappropriate delay on ACK packets. ACKCC > compensates in an end-to-end fashion the throughput degradation due > to the effect of media contention as well as the unfairness > experienced by multiple uplink TCP flows in a congested Wi-Fi = access. >=20 > 5.2.1. Services provided by Alternative Networks >=20 > This section provides an overview of the services between hosts > inside the network. They can be divided into Intranet services, > connecting hosts between them, and Internet services, connecting to > nodes outside the network. >=20 > 5.2.1.1. Intranet services >=20 > Intranet services can include, but are not limited to: >=20 > - VoIP (e.g. with SIP) >=20 > - Remote desktop (e.g. using my home computer and my Internet > connection when I am on holidays in a village). >=20 > - FTP file sharing (e.g. distribution of Linux software). >=20 > - P2P file sharing. >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 22] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > - Public video cameras. >=20 > - DNS. >=20 > - Online games servers. >=20 > - Jabber instant messaging. >=20 > - IRC chat. >=20 > - Weather stations. >=20 > - NTP. >=20 > - Network monitoring. >=20 > - Videoconferencing / streaming. >=20 > - Radio streaming. >=20 > 5.2.1.2. Access to the Internet >=20 > 5.2.1.2.1. Web browsing proxies >=20 > A number of federated proxies MAY provide web browsing service for > the users. Other services (file sharing, skype, etc.) are not > usually allowed in many Alternative Networks due to bandwidth > limitations. >=20 > 5.2.1.2.2. Use of VPNs >=20 > Some "micro-ISPs" may use the network as a backhaul for providing > Internet access, setting up VPNs from the client to a machine with > Internet access. >=20 > 5.3. Topology >=20 > Alternative Networks follow different topology patterns, as studied > in [Vega]. >=20 > Regularly rural areas in these networks are connected through long- > distance links (the so-called community mesh approach) which in = turn > convey the Internet connection to relevant organisations or > institutions. In contrast, in urban areas, users tend to share and > require mobile access. Since these areas are also likely to be > covered by commercial ISPs, the provision of wireless access by > Virtual Operators like [Fon] may constitute a way to extend the = user >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 23] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > capacity (or gain connection) to the network. Other proposals like > Virtual Public Networks [Sathiaseelan_a] can also extend the = service. >=20 > As in the case of main Internet Service Providers in France, > Community Networks for urban areas are conceived as a set of APs > sharing a common SSID among the clients favouring the nomadic = access. > For users in France, ISPs promise to cause a little impact on their > service agreement when the shared network service is activated on > clients' APs. Nowadays, millions of APs are deployed around the > country performing services of nomadism and 3G offloading, however = as > some studies demonstrate, at walking speed, there is a fair chance = of > performing file transfers [Castignani_a], [Castignani_b]. = Scenarios > studied in France and Luxembourg show that the density of APs in > urban areas (mainly in downtown and residential areas) is quite big > and from different ISPs. Moreover, performed studies reveal that > aggregating available networks can be beneficial to the client by > using an application that manages the best connection among the > different networks. For improving the scanning process (or = topology > recognition), which consumes the 90% of the connection/reconnection > process to the Community Network, the client may implement several > techniques for selecting the best AP [Castignani_c]. >=20 > 6. Acknowledgements >=20 > This work has been partially funded by the CONFINE European > Commission Project (FP7 - 288535). >=20 > The editor and the authors of this document wish to thank the > following individuals who have participated in the drafting, = review, > and discussion of this memo: >=20 > Paul M. Aoki, Roger Baig, Jaume Barcelo, Steven G. Huter, Rohan > Mahy, Rute Sofia, Dirk Trossen. >=20 > A special thanks to the GAIA Working Group chairs Matt Ford and s/Matt/Mat/ > Arjuna Sathiaseelan for their support and guidance. >=20 > 7. Contributing Authors >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 24] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > Ioannis Komnios > Democritus University of Thrace > Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering > Kimmeria University Campus > Xanthi 67100 > Greece >=20 > Phone: +306945406585 > Email: ikomnios@ee.duth.gr >=20 >=20 > Steve Song > Village Telco Limited >=20 >=20 > Halifax > Canada >=20 > Phone: > Email: stevesong@nsrc.org >=20 >=20 > David Lloyd Johnson > Meraka, CSIR > 15 Lower Hope St > Rosebank 7700 > South Africa >=20 > Phone: +27 (0)21 658 2740 > Email: djohnson@csir.co.za >=20 > 8. IANA Considerations >=20 > This memo includes no request to IANA. >=20 > 9. Security Considerations >=20 > No security issues have been identified for this document. >=20 > 10. References >=20 > 10.1. Normative References >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 25] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > [IEEE.802-11A.1999] > "Information technology - Telecommunications and > information exchange between systems - Local and > metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - = Part > 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and = Physical > Layer (PHY) specifications - High-speed Physical Layer = in > the 5 GHZ Band", IEEE Standard 802.11a, Sept 1999, > download/802.11a-1999.pdf>. >=20 > [IEEE.802-11AF.2013] > "Information technology - Telecommunications and > information exchange between systems - Local and > metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - = Part > 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and = Physical > Layer (PHY) specifications - Amendment 5: Television = White > Spaces (TVWS) Operation", IEEE Standard 802.11af, Oct > 2009, download/802.11af-2013.pdf>. >=20 > [IEEE.802-11B.1999] > "Information technology - Telecommunications and > information exchange between systems - Local and > metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - = Part > 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and = Physical > Layer (PHY) specifications - Higher-Speed Physical Layer > Extension in the 2.4 GHz Band", IEEE Standard 802.11b, > Sept 1999, download/802.11b-1999.pdf>. >=20 > [IEEE.802-11G.2003] > "Information technology - Telecommunications and > information exchange between systems - Local and > metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - = Part > 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and = Physical > Layer (PHY) specifications - Amendment 4: Further Higher > Data Rate Extension in the 2.4 GHz Band", IEEE Standard > 802.11g, Jun 2003, = download/802.11g-2003.pdf>. >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 26] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > [IEEE.802-11N.2009] > "Information technology - Telecommunications and > information exchange between systems - Local and > metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - = Part > 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and = Physical > Layer (PHY) specifications - Amendment 5: Enhancements = for > Higher Throughput", IEEE Standard 802.11n, Oct 2009, > download/802.11n-2009.pdf>. >=20 > [IEEE.802-16.2008] > "Information technology - Telecommunications and > information exchange between systems - Broadband = wireless > metropolitan area networks (MANs) - IEEE Standard for = Air > Interface for Broadband Wireless Access Systems", IE > EE > Standard 802.16, Jun 2008, > download/802.16-2012.pdf>. >=20 > [IEEE.802-22.2011] > "Information technology - Telecommunications and > information exchange between systems - Local and > metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - = Part > 22: Cognitive Wireless RAN Medium Access Control (MAC) = and > Physical Layer (PHY) specifications: Policies and > procedures for operation in the TV Bands", IEEE Standard > 802.22, Jul 2011, download/802.11af-2013.pdf>. >=20 > [RFC1918] Rekhter, Y., Moskowitz, R., Karrenberg, D., Groot, G., = and > E. Lear, "Address Allocation for Private Internets", BCP > 5, RFC 1918, February 1996. >=20 > [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate > Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. >=20 > [RFC2328] Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", STD 54, RFC 2328, April 1998. >=20 > [RFC3135] Border, J., Kojo, M., Griner, J., Montenegro, G., and Z. > Shelby, "Performance Enhancing Proxies Intended to > Mitigate Link-Related Degradations", RFC 3135, June = 2001. >=20 > [RFC3626] Clausen, T. and P. Jacquet, "Optimized Link State = Routing > Protocol (OLSR)", RFC 3626, October 2003. >=20 > [RFC4271] Rekhter, Y., Li, T., and S. Hares, "A Border Gateway > Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", RFC 4271, January 2006. >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 27] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > [RFC5690] Floyd, S., Arcia, A., Ros, D., and J. Iyengar, "Adding > Acknowledgement Congestion Control to TCP", RFC 5690, > February 2010. >=20 > [RFC6297] Welzl, M. and D. Ros, "A Survey of = Lower-than-Best-Effort > Transport Protocols", RFC 6297, June 2011. >=20 > 10.2. Informative References >=20 > [Abolhasan] > Abolhasan, M., Hagelstein, B., and J. Wang, "Real-world > performance of current proactive multi-hop mesh > protocols", In Communications, 2009. APCC 2009. 15th = Asia- > Pacific Conference on (pp. 44-47). IEEE. , 2009. >=20 > [Airjaldi] > Rural Broadband (RBB) Pvt. Ltd., Airjaldi., "Airjaldi > service", Airjaldi web page, www.airjaldi.net , 2015. >=20 > [Avonts] Avonts, J., Braem, B., and C. Blondia, "A Questionnaire > based Examination of Community Networks", Proceedings > Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and > Communications (WiMob), 2013 IEEE 8th International > Conference on (pp. 8-15) , 2013. >=20 > [Bernardi] > Bernardi, B., Buneman, P., and M. Marina, "Tegola tiered > mesh network testbed in rural Scotland", Proceedings of > the 2008 ACM workshop on Wireless networks and systems = for > developing regions (WiNS-DR '08). ACM, New York, NY, = USA, > 9-16 , 2008. >=20 > [Braem] Braem, B., Baig Vinas, R., Kaplan, A., Neumann, A., = Vilata > i Balaguer, I., Tatum, B., Matson, M., Blondia, C., = Barz, > C., Rogge, H., Freitag, F., Navarro, L., Bonicioli, J., > Papathanasiou, S., and P. Escrich, "A case for research > with and on community networks", ACM SIGCOMM Computer > Communication Review vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 68-73, 2013. >=20 > [Castignani_a] > Castignani, G., Loiseau, L., and N. Montavont, "An > Evaluation of IEEE 802.11 Community Networks = Deployments", > Information Networking (ICOIN), 2011 International > Conference on , vol., no., pp.498,503, 26-28 , 2011. >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 28] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > [Castignani_b] > Castignani, G., Monetti, J., Montavont, N., Arcia-Moret, > A., Frank, R., and T. Engel, "A Study of Urban IEEE = 802.11 > Hotspot Networks: Towards a Community Access Network", > Wireless Days (WD), 2013 IFIP , pp.1,8, 13-15 , 2013. >=20 > [Castignani_c] > Castignani, G., Arcia-Moret, A., and N. Montavont, "A > study of the discovery process in 802.11 networks", > SIGMOBILE Mob. Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 15, no. 1, p. = 25 > , 2011. >=20 > [DAE] European Commission, EC., "A Digital Agenda for Europe", > Communication from the Commission of 19 May 2010 to the > European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic > and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - = A > Digital Agenda for Europe , 2010. >=20 > [Everylayer] > former Volo Broadband, Everylayer., "Everylayer", > Everylayer web page, http://www.everylayer.com/ , 2015. >=20 > [FNF] The Free Network Foundation, FNF., "The Free Network > Foundation", The Free Network Foundation web page, > https://thefnf.org/ , 2014. >=20 > [Flickenger] > Flickenger, R., Okay, S., Pietrosemoli, E., Zennaro, M., > and C. Fonda, "Very Long Distance Wi-Fi Networks", NSDR > 2008, The Second ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Networked = Systems > for Developing Regions. USA, 2008 , 2008. >=20 > [Fon] Fon Wireless Limited, Fon., "What is Fon", Fon web page, > https://corp.fon.com/en , 2014. >=20 > [Hanbali] Hanbali, A., Altman, E., and P. Nain, "A Survey of TCP > over Ad Hoc Networks", IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, = vol. > 7, pp. 22-36 , 2005. >=20 > [Heer] Heer, T., Hummen, R., Viol, N., Wirtz, H., Gotz, S., and > K. Wehrle, "Collaborative municipal Wi-Fi networks- > challenges and opportunities", Pervasive Computing and > Communications Workshops (PERCOM Workshops), 2010 8th = IEEE > International Conference on (pp. 588-593). IEEE. , 2010. >=20 > [IEEE] Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, IEEE, > "IEEE Standards association", 2012. >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 29] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > [Komnios] Komnios, I., Sathiaseelan, A., and J. Crowcroft, "LEDBAT > performance in subpacket regimes", IEEE/IFIP WONS, > Austria, April 2014 , 2014. >=20 > [Lampropulos] > Lampropulos, A., Castignani, G., Blanc, A., and N. > Montavont, "Wi2Me: A Mobile Sensing Platform for = Wireless > Heterogeneous Networks", 32nd International Conference = on > Distributed Computing Systems Workshops (ICDCS = Workshops), > 2012, pp. 108-113 , 2012. >=20 > [Lowenstedt] > Huggler, J., "Lowenstedt Villagers Built Own Fiber Optic > Network", The Telegraph, 03 Jun 2014, available at > http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/ > germany/10871150/ > German-villagers-set-up-their-own-broadband-network.html = , > 2014. >=20 > [Mexican] Varma, S., "Lowenstedt Villagers Built Own Fiber Optic > Network", The Times of India, 27 Aug 2013, available at > http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/rest-of-world/ > = Ignored-by-big-companies-Mexican-village-creates-its-own- > mobile-service/articleshow/22094736.cms , 2013. >=20 > [Neumann] Neumann, A., Lopez, E., and L. Navarro, "An evaluation = of > bmx6 for community wireless networks", In Wireless and > Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob), > 2012 IEEE 8th International Conference on (pp. 651-658). > IEEE. , 2012. >=20 > [PAWS] Sathiaseelan, A., Crowcroft, J., Goulden, M., > Greiffenhagen, C., Mortier, R., Fairhurst, G., and D. > McAuley, "Public Access WiFi Service (PAWS)", Digital > Economy All Hands Meeting, Aberdeen , Oct 2012. >=20 > [Pietrosemoli] > Pietrosemoli, E., Zennaro, M., and C. Fonda, "Low cost > carrier independent telecommunications infrastructure", = In > proc. 4th Global Information Infrastructure and = Networking > Symposium, Choroni, Venezuela , 2012. >=20 > [Rendon] Rendon, A., Ludena, P., and A. Martinez Fernandez, > "Tecnologias de la Informacion y las Comunicaciones para > zonas rurales Aplicacion a la atencion de salud en = paises > en desarrollo", CYTED. Programa Iberoamericano de = Ciencia > y Tecnologia para el Desarrollo , 2011. >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 30] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > [Ros] Ros, D. and M. Welzl, "Assessing LEDBAT's Delay Impact", > Communications Letters, IEEE , vol.17, no.5, = pp.1044,1047, > May 2013 , 2013. >=20 > [Samanta] Samanta, V., Knowles, C., Wagmister, J., and D. Estrin, > "Metropolitan Wi-Fi Research Network at the Los Angeles > State Historic Park", The Journal of Community > Informatics, North America, 4 , May 2008. >=20 > [Sathiaseelan_a] > Sathiaseelan, A., Rotsos, C., Sriram, C., Trossen, D., > Papadimitriou, P., and J. Crowcroft, "Virtual Public > Networks", In Software Defined Networks (EWSDN), 2013 > Second European Workshop on (pp. 1-6). IEEE. , 2013. >=20 > [Sathiaseelan_b] > Sathiaseelan, A. and J. Crowcroft, "LCD-Net: Lowest Cost > Denominator Networking", ACM SIGCOMM Computer > Communication Review , Apr 2013. >=20 > [Sathiaseelan_c] > Sathiaseelan, A., Mortier, R., Goulden, M., = Greiffenhagen, > C., Radenkovic, M., Crowcroft, J., and D. McAuley, "A > Feasibility Study of an In-the-Wild Experimental Public > Access WiFi Network", ACM DEV 5, Proceedings of the = Fifth > ACM Symposium on Computing for Development, San Jose , = Dec > 2014 pp 33-42, 2014. >=20 > [Suresh] Suresh, L., Schulz-Zander, J., Merz, R., Feldmann, A., = and > T. Vazao, "Towards Programmable Enterprise WLANs with > ODIN", In Proceedings of the first workshop on Hot = topics > in software defined networks (HotSDN '12). ACM, New = York, > NY, USA, 115-120 , 2012. >=20 > [Vega] Vega, D., Cerda-Alabern, L., Navarro, L., and R. = Meseguer, > "Topology patterns of a community network: Guifi. net.", > Proceedings Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking = and > Communications (WiMob), 2012 IEEE 8th International > Conference on (pp. 612-619) , 2012. >=20 > [WNDW] Wireless Networking in the Developing World/Core > Contributors, "Wireless Networking in the Developing > World, 3rd Edition", The WNDW Project, available at > wndw.net , 2013. >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 31] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > [WSIS] International Telecommunications Union, ITU, = "Declaration > of Principles. Building the Information Society: A = global > challenge in the new millenium", World Summit on the > Information Society, 2003, at http://www.itu.int/wsis, > accessed 12 January 2004. , Dec 2013. >=20 > [Zennaro] Zennaro, M., Fonda, C., Pietrosemoli, E., Muyepa, A., > Okay, S., Flickenger, R., and S. Radicella, "On a long > wireless link for rural telemedicine in Malawi", 6th > International Conference on Open Access, Lilongwe, = Malawi > , Nov 2008. >=20 > Authors' Addresses >=20 > Jose Saldana (editor) > University of Zaragoza > Dpt. IEC Ada Byron Building > Zaragoza 50018 > Spain >=20 > Phone: +34 976 762 698 > Email: jsaldana@unizar.es >=20 >=20 > Andres Arcia-Moret > Universidad de Los Andes > Facultad de Ingenieria. Sector La Hechicera > Merida 5101 > Venezuela >=20 > Phone: +58 274 2402811 > Email: andres.arcia@ula.ve >=20 >=20 > Bart Braem > iMinds > Gaston Crommenlaan 8 (bus 102) > Gent 9050 > Belgium >=20 > Phone: +32 3 265 38 64 > Email: bart.braem@iminds.be >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 32] > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January = 2015 >=20 >=20 > Leandro Navarro > U. Politecnica Catalunya > Jordi Girona, 1-3, D6 > Barcelona 08034 > Spain >=20 > Phone: +34 934016807 > Email: leandro@ac.upc.edu >=20 >=20 > Ermanno Pietrosemoli > ICTP > Via Beirut 7 > Trieste 34151 > Italy >=20 > Phone: +39 040 2240 471 > Email: ermanno@ictp.it >=20 >=20 > Carlos Rey-Moreno > University of the Western Cape > Robert Sobukwe road > Bellville 7535 > South Africa >=20 > Phone: 0027219592562 > Email: crey-moreno@uwc.ac.za >=20 >=20 > Arjuna Sathiaseelan > University of Cambridge > 15 JJ Thomson Avenue > Cambridge CB30FD > United Kingdom >=20 > Phone: +44 (0)1223 763781 > Email: arjuna.sathiaseelan@cl.cam.ac.uk >=20 >=20 > Marco Zennaro > Abdus Salam ICTP > Strada Costiera 11 > Trieste 34100 > Italy >=20 > Phone: +39 040 2240 406 > Email: mzennaro@ictp.it >=20 >=20 >=20 > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page = 33] Mat --Apple-Mail=_A45B33E2-52C2-4BC5-8BD5-DB801B120D67 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="signature.asc" Content-Type: application/pgp-signature; name="signature.asc" Content-Description: Message signed with OpenPGP using GPGMail -----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE----- Comment: GPGTools - https://gpgtools.org iQIcBAEBCgAGBQJU1KwKAAoJEE+uAxYl6UzoYPMP/2wgeJFMzWJqqwAnDTq0BqQV Mk97aKZ/c8dPswzVwUMUC3qEt9hU0oQDk1ArpcNlFtAqOezvIRbPZ+xvRjZ78BZs wtMrPYVTQ1MD7CtOz2qEPqzMS/EnkQMyzAKk6rdLI0U8QNXt5zl4wsr9O86pSx6B dexV4D5haNlWgADkjSmJK630kt1U5KSaa6qtLjwRDET+JwG3JhK2T77beToENr0v 7NckK9NEg5ebhX8Q0qr5zh2XKFM2JjDRRJWXqHJ5Z6kKuPzTu8089h61iZqFytUl 8JNIapB2jsfHLFKuFcVZAJWeifAY7pWSwT8LlOQd8ooPta/5Z/AIFx9wTQz82xjJ N1APK0NT5w53g5MCWJHX6qF8sC6UPOCnyMk5L+zXkpKVOMqwGLxV3ovKSN2CeBX+ gQqLtmlsds+f46ak14oxAu+LE0uBHKAkU/WVg1hWocEodHLbNV5zJdE96IvlR+9X 61fBw0UsgoaHETNi2PDigFZ8YP47F2CmU9ntvVNvBzMpJssyF0ttDFMn3dhXFbS/ OU2sARD5mnuPlxGaE2N5JYbpX9D4tw4SkrsJCCnr6ud7LW3BLQuSwMMUcfIpam8K 4UpyLOiabkV3CumsbX6+nl9cuz8s5EtAufFipMnAtofGQxuvbUcq3tM4uu7QnmLt //zDdD8w8OSY1/vTcjfh =2I3S -----END PGP SIGNATURE----- --Apple-Mail=_A45B33E2-52C2-4BC5-8BD5-DB801B120D67-- From nobody Fri Feb 6 07:23:47 2015 Return-Path: X-Original-To: gaia@ietfa.amsl.com Delivered-To: gaia@ietfa.amsl.com Received: from localhost (ietfa.amsl.com [127.0.0.1]) by ietfa.amsl.com (Postfix) with ESMTP id 747A41A00FF for ; Fri, 6 Feb 2015 07:23:39 -0800 (PST) X-Virus-Scanned: amavisd-new at amsl.com X-Spam-Flag: NO X-Spam-Score: -0.511 X-Spam-Level: X-Spam-Status: No, score=-0.511 tagged_above=-999 required=5 tests=[BAYES_50=0.8, GB_AFFORDABLE=1, GB_I_LETTER=-2, GB_SUMOF=1, J_BACKHAIR_11=1, RCVD_IN_DNSWL_MED=-2.3, SPF_PASS=-0.001, T_RP_MATCHES_RCVD=-0.01] autolearn=ham Received: from mail.ietf.org ([4.31.198.44]) by localhost (ietfa.amsl.com [127.0.0.1]) (amavisd-new, port 10024) with ESMTP id o1o-v0QXR6Ik for ; Fri, 6 Feb 2015 07:23:23 -0800 (PST) Received: from isuela.unizar.es (isuela.unizar.es [155.210.1.53]) (using TLSv1 with cipher DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA (256/256 bits)) (No client certificate requested) by ietfa.amsl.com (Postfix) with ESMTPS id 39D351A1B3A for ; Fri, 6 Feb 2015 07:23:21 -0800 (PST) Received: from usuarioPC (gtc1pc12.cps.unizar.es [155.210.158.17]) by isuela.unizar.es (8.13.8/8.13.8/Debian-3) with ESMTP id t16FNCKE005496; Fri, 6 Feb 2015 16:23:12 +0100 From: "Jose Saldana" To: "'Matthew Ford'" References: <20150121171650.3309.77447.idtracker@ietfa.amsl.com> <72a801d0359e$c1c14c80$4543e580$@unizar.es> In-Reply-To: Date: Fri, 6 Feb 2015 16:23:24 +0100 Message-ID: <014501d04220$d9714450$8c53ccf0$@unizar.es> MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="US-ASCII" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit X-Mailer: Microsoft Outlook 14.0 Thread-Index: AQGb5MN7siVi8iNyliqnCXAbcDMlOAGIhWflAbFThu2dMqg6kA== Content-Language: es X-Mail-Scanned: Criba 2.0 + Clamd & Bogofilter Archived-At: Cc: gaia@irtf.org Subject: Re: [gaia] New Version Notification for draft-manyfolks-gaia-community-networks-02.txt X-BeenThere: gaia@irtf.org X-Mailman-Version: 2.1.15 Precedence: list List-Id: Global Access to the Internet for All List-Unsubscribe: , List-Archive: List-Post: List-Help: List-Subscribe: , X-List-Received-Date: Fri, 06 Feb 2015 15:23:39 -0000 Hi Mat, Thanks a lot for your detailed comments! We will try to address them in the next version. Some of your proposals may also require some discussion with the co-authors, and also in the GAIA list. Best regards, Jose > -----Mensaje original----- > De: Matthew Ford [mailto:ford@isoc.org] > Enviado el: viernes, 06 de febrero de 2015 12:57 > Para: Jose Saldana > CC: gaia@irtf.org > Asunto: Re: [gaia] New Version Notification for draft-manyfolks-gaia-community- > networks-02.txt > > Hi Jose, > > > On 21 Jan 2015, at 17:21, Jose Saldana wrote: > > > > Hi all, > > > > We have just updated (and uploaded) a new version of the "Manyfolks draft": > Alternative Network Deployments. Taxonomy and characterization. > > > > URL: http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-manyfolks-gaia-community- > networks-02.txt > > > > 8< snip >8 > > > > > If you want to have a look to it and send your comments, it would be fine. > > > > Sure! > > A general observation: I find the taxonomical aspect a bit lacking at present. I would > like to have a sharper identification of the characteristics of identified alternative > network types that distinguishes them. Is it the commercial model? Is it the > centralisation or decentralisation of network management? The descriptions are fine > as far as they go, but if there's something unique about the different types that > clearly distinguishes them it would help to call that out better. Maybe a matrix of the > various identified types of network and some of the important characteristics would > be appropriate. > > Some more detailed comments inline: > > > > > > > > > Global Access to the Internet for All J. Saldana, Ed. > > Internet-Draft University of Zaragoza > > Intended status: Informational A. Arcia-Moret > > Expires: July 25, 2015 Universidad de Los Andes > > B. Braem > > iMinds > > L. Navarro > > U. Politecnica Catalunya > > E. Pietrosemoli > > ICTP > > C. Rey-Moreno > > University of the Western Cape > > A. Sathiaseelan > > University of Cambridge > > M. Zennaro > > Abdus Salam ICTP > > January 21, 2015 > > > > Please review: https://www.rfc-editor.org/policy.html#policy.authlist > > I suggest you may want to consider identifying a single Editor and moving other > authors to a Contributing authors section. > > > > > Alternative Network Deployments. Taxonomy and characterization > > Given how much of the document is dedicated to discussing the technologies > employed in alternative networks, and their architecture, I wonder about extending > the title, e.g. > > "Alternative Networks: Taxonomy, characterization, technologies and architectures" > > > draft-manyfolks-gaia-community-networks-02 > > > > Abstract > > > > This document presents a taxonomy of "Alternative Network > > deployments", and a set of definitions and shared characteristics. > > It also discusses the technologies employed in these network deployments, and their > differing architectural characteristics. > > > This term includes a set of network access models emerged in the last > > s/models emerged/models that have emerged/ > > > decade with the aim of bringing Internet connectivity to people, > > using topological, architectural and business models different from > > the so-called "traditional" ones, where a company deploys the network > > s/deploys/deploys or leases/ > > > infrastructure for connecting the users, who pay for it. > > Maybe s/who pay for it/who pay a subscription fee to be connected and make use > of it/ > > > Several initiatives throughout the world have built large scale > > networks that are alternative to the traditional network operator > > deployments using predominately wireless technologies (including long > > s/predominately/predominantly > > > distance) due to the reduced cost of using the unlicensed spectrum. > > Wired technologies such as Fiber are also used in some of these > > alternate networks. There are several types of such alternate > > network: networks such as community networks are self-organized and > > decentralized networks wholly owned by the community; networks owned > > by individuals who act as wireless internet service providers > > (WISPs), networks owned by individuals but leased out to network > > operators who use such networks as a low-cost medium to reach the > > underserved population and finally there are networks that provide > > connectivity by sharing wireless resources of the users. > > > > The emergence of these networks can be motivated by different causes > > such as the reluctance, or the impossibility, of network operators to > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 1] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > provide wired and cellular infrastructures to rural/remote areas. In > > these cases, the networks have self sustainable business models that > > provide more localised communication services as well as Internet > > backhaul support through peering agreements with traditional network > > operators. Some other times, networks are built as a complement and > > an alternative to commercial Internet access provided by > > "traditional" network operators. > > > > The present classification considers different existing network > > models such as Community Networks, open wireless services, user- > > extensible services, traditional local Internet Service Providers > > (ISPs), new global ISPs, etc. Different criteria are used in order > > to build a classification as e.g., the ownership of the equipment, > > the way the network is organized, the participatory model, the > > extensibility, if they are driven by a community, a company or a > > local (public or private) stakeholder, etc. > > > > According to the developed taxonomy, a characterization of each kind > > of network is presented, in terms of specific network characteristics > > related to architecture, organization, etc. > > > > Status of This Memo > > > > This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the > > provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. > > > > Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering > > Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute > > working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- > > Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. > > > > Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months > > and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any > > time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference > > material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." > > > > This Internet-Draft will expire on July 25, 2015. > > > > Copyright Notice > > > > Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the > > document authors. All rights reserved. > > > > This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal > > Provisions Relating to IETF Documents > > (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of > > publication of this document. Please review these documents > > carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 2] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must > > include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of > > the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as > > described in the Simplified BSD License. > > > > Table of Contents > > > > 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 > > 1.1. Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 > > 2. Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 > > 2.1. Community Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 > > 2.1.1. Free Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 > > 2.2. Wireless Internet Service Providers WISPs . . . . . . . . 7 > > 2.3. Shared infrastructure model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 > > 2.4. Crowdshared approaches, led by the people and third party > > stakeholders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 > > 2.5. Testbeds for research purposes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 > > 3. Scenarios where Alternative Networks are deployed . . . . . . 9 > > 3.1. Digital Divide and Alternative Networks . . . . . . . . . 9 > > 3.2. Urban vs. rural areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 > > 4. Technologies employed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 > > 4.1. Wired . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 > > 4.2. Wireless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 > > 4.2.1. Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 > > 4.2.2. Link length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 > > 4.2.2.1. Line-of-Sight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 > > 4.2.2.2. Transmitted and Received Power . . . . . . . . . 15 > > 4.2.2.3. Medium Access Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 > > 4.2.3. Layer 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 > > 4.2.3.1. 802.11 (Wi-Fi) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 > > 4.2.3.2. GSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 > > 4.2.3.3. Dynamic Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 > > 5. Network and architecture issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 > > 5.1. Layer 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 > > 5.1.1. IP addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 > > 5.1.2. Routing protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 > > 5.1.2.1. Traditional routing protocols . . . . . . . . . . 21 > > 5.1.2.2. Mesh routing protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 > > 5.2. Upper layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 > > 5.2.1. Services provided by Alternative Networks . . . . . . 22 > > 5.2.1.1. Intranet services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 > > 5.2.1.2. Access to the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 > > 5.3. Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 > > 6. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 > > 7. Contributing Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 > > 8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 > > 9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 > > 10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 3] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > 10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 > > 10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 > > Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 > > > > 1. Introduction > > > > Several initiatives throughout the world have built large scale > > networks that are alternative to the traditional network operator > > deployments using predominately wireless technologies (including long > > s/predominately/predominantly > > > distance) due to the reduced cost of using the unlicensed spectrum. > > Wired technologies such as Fiber are also used in some of these > > alternate networks. There are several types of such alternate > > network: networks such as community networks are self-organized and > > decentralized networks wholly owned by the community; networks owned > > by individuals who act as wireless internet service providers > > (WISPs), networks owned by individuals but leased out to network > > operators who use such networks as a low cost medium to reach the > > underserved population and finally there are networks that provide > > connectivity by sharing wireless resources of the users. > > > > The emergence of these networks can be motivated by different causes, > > as the reluctance, or the impossibility, of network operators to > > provide wired and cellular infrastructures to rural/remote areas > > [Pietrosemoli]. In these cases, the networks have self sustainable > > business models that provide more localised communication services as > > well as Internet backhaul support through peering agreements with > > traditional network operators. Some other times, they are built as a > > complement and an alternative to commercial Internet access provided > > by "traditional" network operators. > > > > One of the aims of the Global Access to the Internet for All (GAIA) > > IRTF initiative is "to document and share deployment experiences and > > research results to the wider community through scholarly > > publications, white papers, Informational and Experimental RFCs, > > etc." In line with this objective, this document is intended to > > propose a classification of these "Alternative Network deployments". > > This term includes a set of network access models emerged in the last > > s/models emerged/models that have emerged/ > > > decade with the aim of bringing Internet connectivity to people, > > following topological, architectural and business models different > > from the so-called "traditional" ones, where a company deploys the > > infrastructure connecting the users, who pay for it. The document is > > Maybe s/who pay for it/who pay a subscription fee to be connected and make use > of it/ > > > intended to be largely descriptive providing a broad overview of > > initiatives, technologies and approaches employed in these networks. > > Research references describing each kind of network are also > > provided. > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 4] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > 1.1. Requirements Language > > > > The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", > > "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" > in this > > document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. > > This document is not on the standards track, so this section is not necessary. Also, > capitalisation of words like CAN and MAY later in the draft is not appropriate. > > > > > 2. Classification > > > > This section classifies Alternative Networks (ANs) according to their > > intended usage. Each of them has different incentive structures, > > maybe common technological challenges, but most importantly > > interesting usage challenges which feeds into the incentives as well > > as the technological challenges. > > > > This classification is agnostic from the technical point of view. > > Technology in this case must be taken as implementation. Moreover, > > many of these networks are implemented in a way that several > > technologies (Ad-Hoc Wi-Fi, Infrastructure Wi-Fi, Optical Fiber, > > IPv4, IPv6, RFC1918, OLSR, BMX6, etc.) coexist. > > I wonder if it might be helpful for the reader to include a loose definition of > 'traditional' network, to compare these alternatives with. What is the defining > characteristic that makes these alternatives different? > > > > > 2.1. Community Networks > > > > Community Networks are large-scale, distributed, self-managed > > networks sharing these characteristics: > > > > - They are built and organized in a decentralized and open manner. > > > > - They start and grow organically, they are open to participation > > from everyone, sometimes agreeing to an open peering agreement. > > Community members directly contribute active network infrastructure > > (not just passive infrastructure). > > > > - Knowledge about building and maintaining the network and ownership > > of the network itself is decentralized and open. Community members > > have an obvious and direct form of organizational control over the > > overall operation of the network in their community (not just their > > own participation in the network). > > > > - The network CAN serve as a backhaul for providing a whole range of > > services and applications, from completely free to even commercial > > services. > > > > No need to capitalise CAN. This document is not standards track or normative. This > applies throughout the document, but I'm not going to comment every time. > > > Hardware and software used in Community Networks CAN be very diverse, > > even inside one network. A Community Network CAN have both wired and > > wireless links. The network CAN be managed by multiple routing > > protocols or network topology management systems. > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 5] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > These networks grow organically, since they are formed by the > > aggregation of nodes belonging to different users. A minimum > > governance infrastructure is required in order to coordinate IP > > addressing, routing, etc. A clear example of this kind of Community > > Network is described in [Braem]. These networks are effective in > > enhancing and extending digital Internet rights following a > > participatory model. > > I couldn't parse the final sentence of that para. > > > > > The fact of the users adding new infrastructure (i.e. extensibility) > > can be used to formulate another definition: A Community Network is a > > network in which any participant in the system may add link segments > > to the network in such a way that the new network segments can > > support multiple nodes and adopt the same overall characteristics as > > those of the joined network, including the capacity to further extend > > the network. Once these link segments are joined to the network, > > there is no longer a meaningful distinction between the previous > > extent of the network and the new extent of the network. > > > > In Community Networks, the profit can only be made by services and > > not by the infrastructure itself, because the infrastructure is > > neutral, free, and open (traditional Internet Service Providers, > > ISPs, base their business on the control of the infrastructure). In > > Community Networks, everybody keeps the ownership of what he/she has > > contributed. > > See earlier comment about providing a definition of traditional ISP. If there are other > defining characteristics, it could help to identify them up front. > > > > > Community Networks MAY also be called "Free Networks" or even > > "Network Commons". [FNF]. The majority of Community Networks > > accomplishes the definition of Free Network, included in the next > > subsection. > > > > 2.1.1. Free Networks > > > > A definition of Free Network (which MAY be the same as Community > > Network) is proposed by the Free Network Foundation (see > > http://thefnf.org) as: > > > > "A free network equitably grants the following freedoms to all: > > > > Freedom 0 - The freedom to communicate for any purpose, without > > discrimination, interference, or interception. > > > > Freedom 1 - The freedom to grow, improve, communicate across, and > > connect to the whole network. > > > > Freedom 2- The freedom to study, use, remix, and share any network > > communication mechanisms, in their most reusable forms." > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 6] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > The principles of Free, Open and Neutral Networks have also been > > summarized (see http://guifi.net/en/FONCC) this way: > > > > - You have the freedom to use the network for any purpose as long as > > you do not harm the operation of the network itself, the rights of > > other users, or the principles of neutrality that allow contents and > > services to flow without deliberate interference. > > > > - You have the right to understand the network, to know its > > components, and to spread knowledge of its mechanisms and principles. > > > > - You have the right to offer services and content to the network on > > your own terms. > > > > - You have the right to join the network, and the responsibility to > > extend this set of rights to anyone according to these same terms. > > > > 2.2. Wireless Internet Service Providers WISPs > > > > WISPs are commercially-operated wireless Internet networks that > > provide Internet and/or Voice Over Internet (VoIP) services. They > > are most common in areas not covered by incumbent telcos or ISPs. > > WISPs often use wireless point-to-point or point-to-multipoint in the > > unlicensed frequencies but licensed frequency use is common too > > especially in regions where unlicensed spectrum is either perceived > > as crowded or where unlicensed spectrum may have regulatory barriers > > impeding its use. > > > > Most WISPs are operated by local companies responding to a perceived > > market gap. There is a small but growing number of WISPs, such as > > AirJaldi [Airjaldi] in India that have expanded from local service > > into multiple locations. > > What I miss in this section is some text that talks about why a WISP is able to > succeed where an incumbent or traditional ISP is not. If WISPs are for-profit > enterprises, then why are they able to make a return, or why do incumbents choose > not to? > > > > > Since 2006, the deployment of cloud-managed WISPs has been possible > > I think a sentence defining 'cloud-managed' would be helpful here. > > > with companies like Meraki and later OpenMesh and others. Until > > recently, however, most of these services have been aimed at > > industrialised markets. Everylayer [Everylayer], launched in 2014, > > is the first cloud-managed WISP service aimed at emerging markets. > > > > 2.3. Shared infrastructure model > > > > These networks are owned by individuals but leased out to network > > operators who use them as a low cost medium to reach the underserved > > population. > > > > > > Can you give a more expansive example. Do you mean something like FON (I > guess not as that is described in the next section)? How is this different from an > (M)VNO? > > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 7] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > 2.4. Crowdshared approaches, led by the people and third party > > stakeholders > > > > These networks can be defined as a set of nodes whose owners share > > common interests (e.g. sharing connectivity; resources; peripherals) > > regardless of their physical location. The node location exhibits a > > space and time correlation which is the basis to establish a robust > > connectivity model over time. > > I couldn't really parse that last sentence. > > > > > These networks conform to the following approach: the home router > > creates two wireless networks: one of them is normally used by the > > owner, and the other one is public. A small fraction of the > > bandwidth is allocated to the public network, to be employed by any > > user of the service in the immediate area. Some examples are > > described in [PAWS] and [Sathiaseelan_c]. Other example is > > constituted by the networks created and managed by City Councils > > (e.g., [Heer]). > > > > In the same way, some companies [Fon] develop and sell Wi-Fi routers > > with a dual access: a Wi-Fi network for the user, and a shared one. > > A user community is created, and people can join the network in > > different ways: they can buy a router, so they share their connection > > and in turn they get access to all the routers associated to the > > community. Some users can even get some revenue every time another > > user connects to their Wi-Fi spot. Other users can just buy some > > passes in order to use the network. Some telecommunications > > operators can collaborate with the community, including in their > > routers the possibility of creating these two networks. > > > > A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is created for public traffic, so it > > is completely secure and separated from the owner's connection. The > > network capacity shared may employ a low priority, a less-than-best- > > effort or scavenger approach, so as not to harm the traffic of the > > owner of the connection [Sathiaseelan_a]. > > > > The elements involved in a crowd-shared network are summarised below: > > > > - Interest: a parameter capable of providing a measure (cost) of the > > attractiveness of a node towards a specific location, in a specific > > instance in time. > > > > - Resources: A physical or virtual element of a global system. For > > instance, bandwidth; energy; data; devices. > > > > - The owner: End users who sign up for the service and share their > > network capacity. As a counterpart, they can access another owners' > > home access for free. The owner can be an end user or an entity > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 8] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > (e.g. operator; virtual operator; municipality) that is to be made > > responsible for any actions concerning his/her device. > > > > - The user: a legal entity or an individual using or requesting a > > publicly available electronic communications' service for private or > > business purposes, without necessarily having subscribed to such > > service. > > > > - The Virtual Network Operator (VNO): An entity that acts in some > > aspects as a network coordinator. It may provide services such as > > initial authentication or registering, and eventually, trust > > relationship storage. A VNO is not an ISP given that it does not > > provide Internet access (e.g. infrastructure; naming). A VNO is > > neither an Application Service Provider (ASP) since it does not > > provide user services. Virtual Operators MAY also be stakeholders > > with socio-environmental objectives. They CAN be a local government, > > grass root user communities, charities, or even content operators, > > smart grid operators, etc. They are the ones who actually run the > > service. > > > > - Network operators, who have a financial incentive to lease out the > > unused capacity [Sathiaseelan_b] at lower cost to the VNOs. > > > > VNOs pay the sharers and the network operators, thus creating an > > incentive structure for all the actors: the end users get money for > > sharing their network, the network operators are paid by the VNOs, > > who in turn accomplish their socio-environmental role. > > > > 2.5. Testbeds for research purposes > > > > In some cases, the initiative to start the network is not from the > > community, but from a research entity (e.g. a university), with the > > aim of using it for research purposes [Samanta], [Bernardi]. > > This section is kind of amusing to me, given the origins of the Internet. Maybe it is > Comcast, BT, Telefonica et al. that are the 'Alternative Networks'? :) > > > > > 3. Scenarios where Alternative Networks are deployed > > > > Alternative Network deployments are present in every part of the > > world. Even in some high-income countries, these networks have been > > built as an alternative to commercial ones managed by traditional > > network operators. This section discusses the scenarios where > > Alternative Networks have been deployed. > > > > 3.1. Digital Divide and Alternative Networks > > > > There is no definition for what a developing country represents that > > has been recognized internationally, but the term is generally used > > to describe a nation with a low level of material well-being. In > > this sense, one of the most commonly used classification is the one > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 9] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > by the World Bank, who ranks countries according to their Gross > > National Income (GNI) per Capita: low income, middle income, and high > > income, being those falling within the low and middle income groups > > considered developing economies. Developing countries have also been > > defined as those which are in transition from traditional lifestyles > > towards the modern lifestyle which began in the Industrial > > Revolution. Additionally, the Human Development Index, which > > considers not only the GNI but also life expectancy and education, > > has been proposed by the United Nations to rank countries according > > to their well-being and not solely based on economic terms. These > > classifications are used to give strong signals to the international > > community about the need of special concessions in support of these > > countries, implying a correlation between development and increased > > well-being. > > > > However, at the beginning of the 90's the debates about how to > > quantify development in a country were shaken by the appearance of > > Internet and mobile phones, which many authors consider the beginning > > of the Information Society. With the beginning of this Digital > > Revolution, defining development based on Industrial Society concepts > > started to be challenged, and links between digital development and > > its impact on human development started to flourish. The following > > dimensions are considered to be meaningful when measuring the digital > > development state of a country: infrastructures (availability and > > affordability); ICT (Information and Communications Technology) > > sector (human capital and technological industry); digital literacy; > > legal and regulatory framework; and content and services. The lack > > or less extent of digital development in one or more of these > > dimensions is what has been referred as Digital Divide. This divide > > is a new vector of inequality which - as it happened during the > > Industrial Revolution - generates a lot of progress at the expense of > > creating a lot economic poverty and exclusion. The Digital Divide is > > considered to be a consequence of other socio-economic divides, > > while, at the same time, a reason for their rise. > > > > In this context, the so-called "developing countries", in order not > > to be left behind of this incipient digital revolution, motivated the > > World Summit of the Information Society which aimed at achieving "a > > people-centred, inclusive and development-oriented Information > > Society, where everyone can create, access, utilize and share > > information and knowledge, enabling individuals, communities and > > peoples to achieve their full potential in promoting their > > sustainable development and improving their quality of life" [WSIS], > > and called upon "governments, private sector, civil society and > > international organisations" to actively engage to accomplish it > > [WSIS]. > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 10] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > Most efforts from governments and international organizations focused > > initially on improving and extending the existing infrastructure in > > order not to leave their population behind. As an example, one of > > the goals of the Digital Agenda for Europe [DAE] is "to increase > > regular internet usage from 60% to 75% by 2015, and from 41% to 60% > > among disadvantaged people." > > > > Universal Access and Service plans have taken different forms in > > different countries over the years, with very uneven success rates, > > but in most cases inadequate to the scale of the problem. Given its > > incapacity to solve the problem, some governments included Universal > > Service and Access obligations to mobile network operators when > > liberalizing the telecommunications market. In combination with the > > overwhelming and unexpected uptake of mobile phones by poor people, > > this has mitigated the low access indicators existing in many > > developing countries at the beginning of the 90s [Rendon]. > > > > Although the contribution made by mobile network operators in > > decreasing the access gap is undeniable, their model presents some > > constraints that limit the development outcomes that increased > > connectivity promises to bring. Prices, tailored for the more > > affluent part of the population, remain unaffordable to many, who > > invest large percentages of their disposable income in > > communications. Additionally, the cost of prepaid packages, the only > > option available for the informal economies existing throughout > > developing countries, is high compared with the rate longer-term > > subscribers pay. > > > > The consolidation of many Alternative Networks (e.g. Community > > Networks) in high income countries sets a precedent for civil society > > members from the so-called developing countries to become more active > > in the search for alternatives to provide themselves with affordable > > access. Furthermore, Alternative Networks could contribute to other > > dimensions of the digital development like increased human capital > > and the creation of contents and services targeting the locality of > > each network. > > > > 3.2. Urban vs. rural areas > > > > The Digital Divide presented in the previous section is not only > > present between countries, but within them too. This is specially > > the case for rural inhabitants, which represents approximately 55% of > > the world's population, from which 78% inhabit in developing > > countries. Although it is impossible to generalize among them, there > > exist some common features that have determined the availability of > > ICT infrastructure in these regions. The disposable income of their > > dwellers is lower than those inhabiting urban areas, with many > > surviving on a subsistence economy. Many of them are located in > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 11] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > geographies difficult to access and exposed to extreme weather > > conditions. This has resulted in the almost complete lack of > > electrical infrastructure. This context, together with their low > > population density, discourages telecommunications operators to > > provide similar services to those provided to urban dwellers, since > > they do not deem them profitable. > > > > The cost of the wireless infrastructure required to set up a network, > > including powering it via solar energy, is within the range of > > availability if not of individuals at least of entire communities. > > The social capital existing in these areas can allow for Alternative > > Network set-ups where a reduced number of nodes may cover communities > > whose dwellers share the cost of the infrastructure and the gateway > > and access it via inexpensive wireless devices. Some examples are > > presented in [Pietrosemoli] and [Bernardi]. > > > > In this case, the lack of awareness and confidence of rural > > communities to embark themselves in such tasks can become major > > barriers to their deployment. Scarce technical skills in these > > regions have been also pointed as a challenge for their success, but > > the proliferation of urban Community Networks, where scarcity of > > spectrum, scale, and heterogeneity of devices pose tremendous > > challenges to their stability and the services they aim to provide, > > has fuelled the creation of robust low-cost low-consumption low- > > complexity off-the-shelf wireless devices which make much easier the > > deployment and maintenance of these alternative infrastructures in > > rural areas. > > > > 4. Technologies employed > > > > 4.1. Wired > > > > In many (developed or developing) countries it may happen that > > national service providers may decline to provide connectivity to > > tiny and isolated villages. So in some cases the villagers have > > created their own optical fiber networks. It is the case of > > Lowenstedt in Germany [Lowenstedt]. > > > > 4.2. Wireless > > > > Different wireless technologies [WNDW] can be employed in Alternative > > Network deployments. Below we summarise topics to be considered in > > such deployments: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 12] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > 4.2.1. Antennas > > > > Three kinds of antennas are suitable to be used in these networks: > > omnidirectional, directional and high gain antennas. > > > > For local access, omnidirectional antennas are the most useful, since > > they provide the same coverage in all directions of the plane in > > which they are located. Above and below this plane, the received > > signal will diminish, so the maximum benefits are obtained when the > > client is at approximately the same height as the Access Point. > > > > When using an omnidirectional antenna outdoors to provide > > connectivity to a large area, people often select high gain antennas > > located at the highest structure available to extend the coverage. > > In many cases this is counterproductive, since a high gain > > omnidirectional antenna will have a very narrow beamwidth in the > > vertical plane, meaning that clients that are below the plane of the > > antenna will receive a very weak signal (and by the reciprocity > > property of all antennas, the antenna will also receive a feeble > > signal from the client). A moderate gain omnidirectional of about 8 > > to 10 dBi is normally preferable. Higher gain omnidirectional > > antennas are only advisable when the farthest way client is roughly > > in the same plane. > > > > For indoor clients, omnidirectional antennas are generally fine, > > because the numerous reflections normally found in indoor > > environments negate the advantage of using directional antennas. > > > > For outdoor clients, directional antennas can be quite useful to > > extend coverage to an Access Point fitted with an omnidirectional > > one. > > > > When building point-to-point links, the highest gain antennas are the > > best choice, since their narrow beamwidth mitigates interference from > > other users and can provide the longest links [Flickenger], > > [Zennaro]. > > > > 24 to 34 dBi antennas are commercially available at both the > > unlicensed 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands, and even higher gain antennas can > > be found in the newer unlicensed bands at 17 GHz and 24 GHz. > > > > Despite the fact that the free space loss is directly proportional to > > the square of the frequency, it is normally advisable to use higher > > frequencies for point-to-point links when there is a clear line of > > sight, because it is normally easier to get higher gain antennas at 5 > > GHz. Deploying high gain antennas at both ends will more than > > compensate for the additional free space loss. Furthermore, higher > > frequencies can make do with lower altitude antenna placement since > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 13] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > the Fresnel ellipsoid (the volume around the optical line occuppied > > by radio waves, which should be free from obstacles), is inversely > > proportional to the square root of the frequency. > > > > On the contrary, lower frequencies offer advantages when the line of > > sight is blocked because they can leverage diffraction to reach the > > intended receiver. > > > > It is common to find dual radio Access Points, at two different > > frequency bands. One way of benefiting from this arrangement is to > > attach a directional antenna to the high frequency radio for > > connection to the backbone and an omnidirectional one to the lower > > frequency to provide local access. > > > > In the case of mesh networking, where the antenna should connect to > > several other nodes, it is better to use omnidirectional antennas. > > > > The same type of polarisation must be used at both ends of any radio > > link. For point-to-point links, some vendors use two radios > > operating at the same frequency but with orthogonal polarisations, > > thus doubling the achievable throughput, and also offering added > > protection to multipath and other transmission impairments. > > > > 4.2.2. Link length > > > > 4.2.2.1. Line-of-Sight > > > > For short distance transmission, there is no strict requirement of > > line of sight between the transmitter and the receiver, and multipath > > can guarantee communication despite the existence of obstacles in the > > direct path. > > > > For longer distances, the first requirement is the existence of an > > unobstructed line of sight between the transmitter and the receiver. > > For very long path the earth curvature is an obstacle that must be > > cleared, but the trajectory of the radio beam is not strictly a > > straight line due to the bending of the rays as a consequence of non- > > uniformities of the atmosphere. Most of the time this bending will > > mean that the radio horizon extends further than the optical horizon. > > > > Another factor to be considered is that the Fresnel zone (the volume > > around the optical line) must be unencumbered from obstacles for the > > maximum signal to be captured at the receiver. The size of the > > Fresnel ellipsoid grows with the distance between the end points and > > with the wavelength of the signal, which in turn is inversely > > proportional to the frequency. > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 14] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > For optimum signal reception the end points must be high enough to > > clear any obstacle in the path and leave extra "elbow room" for the > > Fresnel zone. This can be achieved by using suitable masts at either > > end, or by taking advantage of existing structures or hills. > > > > 4.2.2.2. Transmitted and Received Power > > > > Once a clear radio-electric line of sight (including the Fresnel zone > > clearance) is obtained, one must ascertain that the received power is > > well above the sensitivity of the receiver, by what is known as the > > "link margin". The greater the link margin, the more reliable the > > link. For mission critical applications 20 dB margin is suggested, > > but for non critical ones 10 dB might suffice. > > > > The sensitivity of the receiver decreases with the transmission > > speed, so more power is needed at greater transmission speeds. > > > > The received power is determined by the transmitted power, the gain > > of the transmitting and receiving antennas and the propagation loss. > > > > The propagation loss is the sum of the free space loss (proportional > > to the square of the the frequency and the square of the distance), > > plus additional factors like attenuation in the atmosphere by gases > > or meteorological effects (which are strongly frequency dependent), > > multipath and diffraction losses. > > > > Multipath is more pronounced in trajectories over water. If they > > cannot be avoided special countermeasures should be taken. > > > > In order to achieve a given link margin (also called "fade margin"), > > one can: > > > > a) Increase the output power.The maximum transmitted power is > > specified by each country's regulation, and for unlicensed > > frequencies is much lower than for licensed frequencies. > > > > b) Increase the antenna gain. There is no limit in the gain of the > > receiving antenna, but high gain antennas are bulkier, present more > > wind resistance and require sturdy mounts to comply with tighter > > alignment requirements. The transmitter antenna gain is also > > regulated and can be different for point-to-point as for point-to- > > multipoint links. Many countries impose a limit in the combination > > of transmitted power and antenna gain, EIRP (Equivalent Isotropically > > Irradiated Power) which can be different for point-to- point or > > point-to-multipoint links. > > > > c) Reduce the propagation loss, by using a more favorable frequency > > or a shorter path. > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 15] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > d) Use a more sensitive receiver. Receiver sensitivity can be > > improved by using better circuits, but it is ultimately limited by > > the thermal noise, which is proportional to temperature and > > bandwidth. One can increase the sensitivity by using a smaller > > receiving bandwidth, or by settling to lower throughput even in the > > same receiver bandwidth. This step is often done automatically in > > many protocols, in which the transmission speed can be reduced from > > 150 Mbit/s to 6 Mbit/s if the receiver power is not enough to sustain > > the maximum throughput. > > > > 4.2.2.3. Medium Access Protocol > > > > A completely different limiting factor is related to the medium > > access protocol. Wi-Fi was designed for short distance, and the > > transmitter expects the reception of an acknowledgment for each > > transmitted packet in a certain amount of time; if the waiting time > > is exceeded, the packet is retransmitted. This will significantly > > reduce the throughput at long distance, so for long distance > > applications it is better to use a different medium access technique, > > in which the receiver does not wait for an acknowledgement of the > > transited packet. This strategy of TDMA (Time Domain Multiple > > Access) has been adopted by many equipment vendors who offer > > proprietary protocols alongside the standard Wi-Fi in order to > > increase the throughput at longer distances. Low cost equipment > > using TDMA can offer high throughput at distances over 100 > > kilometers. > > > > 4.2.3. Layer 2 > > > > 4.2.3.1. 802.11 (Wi-Fi) > > > > Wireless standards ensure interoperability and usability to those who > > design, deploy and manage wireless networks. The standards used in > > the vast majority of Community Networks come from the IEEE Standard > > Association's IEEE 802 Working Group. > > > > The standard we are most interested in is 802.11 a/b/g/n, > > [IEEE.802-11A.1999], [IEEE.802-11B.1999], [IEEE.802-11G.2003], > > [IEEE.802-11N.2009] as it defines the protocol for Wireless LAN. > > Different 802.11 amendments have been released, as shown in the table > > below, also including their frequencies and approximate ranges. > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 16] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > |802.11| Release | Freq |BWdth | Data Rate per | Approx range (m) | > > |prot | date | (GHz)|(MHz) |stream (Mbit/s) | indoor | outdoor | > > +------+---------+------+------+----------------+--------+----------+ > > | a |Sep 1999 | 5 | 20 | 6,9,12, 18, 24,| 35 | 120 | > > | | | | | 36, 48, 54 | | | > > | b |Sep 1999 | 2.4 | 20 | 1, 2, 5.5, 11 | 35 | 140 | > > | g |Jun 2003 | 2.4 | 20 | 6,9,12, 18, 24,| 38 | 140 | > > | | | | | 36, 48, 54 | | | > > | n |Oct 2009 | 2.4/5| 20 | 7.2, 14.4, 21.7| 70 | 250 | > > | | | | | 28.9, 43.3, | | | > > | | | | | 57.8, 65, 72.2 | | | > > | n |Oct 2009 | 2.4/5| 40 | 15, 30, 45, 60,| 70 | 250 | > > | | | | | 90, 120, | | | > > | | | | | 135, 150 | | | > > | ac |Nov 2011 | 5 | 20 | Up to 87.6 | | | > > | ac |Nov 2011 | 5 | 40 | Up to 200 | | | > > | ac |Nov 2011 | 5 | 80 | Up to 433.3 | | | > > | ac |Nov 2011 | 5 | 160 | Up to 866.7 | | | > > > > In 2012 IEEE issued the 802.11-2012 Standard that consolidates all > > the previous amendments. The document is freely downloadable from > > IEEE Standards [IEEE]. > > > > 4.2.3.1.1. Deployment planning for 802.11 wireless networks > > > > Before packets can be forwarded and routed to the Internet, layers > > one (the physical) and two (the data link) need to be connected. > > Without link local connectivity, network nodes cannot talk to each > > other and route packets. > > > > To provide physical connectivity, wireless network devices MUST > > operate in the same part of the radio spectrum. This means that > > 802.11a radios will talk to 802.11a radios at around 5 GHz, and > > 802.11b/g radios will talk to other 802.11b/g radios at around 2.4 > > GHz. But an 802.11a device cannot interoperate with an 802.11b/g > > device, since they use completely different parts of the > > electromagnetic spectrum. More specifically, wireless interfaces > > must agree on a common channel. If one 802.11b radio card is set to > > channel 2 while another is set to channel 11, then the radios cannot > > communicate with each other. > > > > When two wireless interfaces are configured to use the same protocol > > on the same radio channel, then they are ready to negotiate data link > > layer connectivity. Each 802.11a/b/g device can operate in one of > > four possible modes: > > > > 1. Master mode (also called AP or infrastructure mode) is used to > > create a service that looks like a traditional Access Point. The > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 17] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > wireless interface creates a network with a specified name (called > > the SSID, Service Set IDentifier) and channel, and offers network > > services on it. While in master mode, wireless interfaces manage all > > communications related to the network (authenticating wireless > > clients, handling channel contention, repeating packets, etc.) > > Wireless interfaces in master mode can only communicate with > > interfaces that are associated with them in managed mode. > > > > 2. Managed mode is sometimes also referred to as client mode. > > Wireless interfaces in managed mode will join a network created by a > > master, and will automatically change their channel to match it. > > They then present any necessary credentials to the master, and if > > those credentials are accepted, they are associated with the master. > > Managed mode interfaces do not communicate with each other directly, > > and only communicate with an associated master. > > > > 3. Ad-hoc mode creates a multipoint-to-multipoint network where > > there is no single master node or AP. In ad-hoc mode, each wireless > > interface communicates directly with its neighbours. Nodes must be > > in range of each other to communicate, and must agree on a network > > name and channel. Ad-hoc mode is often also called Mesh Networking. > > > > 4. Monitor mode is used by some tools (such as Kismet) to passively > > listen to all radio traffic on a given channel. When in monitor > > mode, wireless interfaces transmit no data. This is useful for > > analysing problems on a wireless link or observing spectrum usage in > > the local area. Monitor mode is not used for normal communications. > > > > When implementing a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint link, one > > radio will typically operate in master mode, while the other(s) > > operate in managed mode. In a multipoint-to-multipoint mesh, the > > radios all operate in ad-hoc mode so that they can communicate with > > each other directly. Managed mode clients cannot communicate with > > each other directly, so a high repeater site is required in master or > > ad-hoc mode. Ad-hoc is more flexible but has a number of performance > > issues as compared to using the master / managed modes. > > > > 4.2.3.2. GSM > > > > GSM has also been used in Alternative Networks as Layer 2 option, as > > explained in [Mexican]. > > > > 4.2.3.3. Dynamic Spectrum > > > > Some Alternative Networks make use of TV White Spaces - a set of UHF > > and VHF television frequencies that can be utilized by secondary > > users in locations where it is unused by licensed primary users such > > as television broadcasters. Equipment that makes use of TV White > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 18] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > Spaces is required to detect the presence of existing unused TV > > channels by means of a spectrum database and/or spectrum sensing in > > order to ensure that no harmful interference is caused to primary > > users. In order to smartly allocate interference-free channels to > > the devices, cognitive radios are used which are able to modify their > > frequency, power and modulation techniques to meet the strict > > operating conditions required for secondary users. > > > > The use of the term "White Spaces" is often used to describe "TV > > White Spaces" as the VHF and UHF television frequencies were the > > first to be exploited on a secondary use basis. There are two > > dominant standards for TV white space communication: (i) the 802.11af > > standard [IEEE.802-11AF.2013] - an adaptation of the 802.11 standard > > for TV white space bands and (ii) the IEEE 802.22 standard > > [IEEE.802-22.2011] for long-range rural communication. > > > > 4.2.3.3.1. 802.11af > > > > 802.11af [IEEE.802-11AF.2013] is a modified version of the 802.11 > > standard operating in TV White Space bands using Cognitive Radios to > > avoid interference with primary users. The standard is often > > referred to as White-Fi or Super WiFi and was approved in February > > 2014. 802.11af contains much of the advances of all the 802.11 > > standards including recent advances in 802.11ac such as up to four > > bonded channels, four spatial streams and very high rate 256-QAM > > modulation but with improved in-building penetration and outdoor > > coverage. The maximum data rate achievable is 426.7 Mbps for > > countries with 6/7 MHz channels and 568.9 Mbps for countries with 8 > > MHz channels. Coverage is typically limited to 1km although longer > > range at lower throughput and using high gain antennas will be > > possible. > > > > Devices are designated as enabling stations (access points) or > > dependent stations (clients). Enabling stations are authorized to > > control the operation of a dependent station and securely access a > > geolocation database. Once the enabling station has received a list > > of available white space channels it can announce a chosen channel to > > the dependent stations for them to communicate with the enabling > > station. 802.11af also makes use of a registered location server - a > > local database that organizes the geographic location and operating > > parameters of all enabling stations. > > > > 4.2.3.3.2. 802.22 > > > > 802.22 [IEEE.802-22.2011] is a standard developed specifically for > > long range rural communications in TV white space frequencies and > > first approved in July 2011. The standard is similar to the 802.16 > > (WiMax) [IEEE.802-16.2008] standard with an added cognitive radio > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 19] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > ability. The maximum throughput of 802.22 is 22.6 Mbps for a single > > 8 MHz channel using 64-QAM modulation. The achievable range using > > the default MAC scheme is 30 km, however 100 km is possible with > > special scheduling techniques. The MAC of 802.22 is specifically > > customized for long distances - for example, slots in a frame > > destined for more distant CPEs are sent before slots destined for > > nearby CPEs. > > > > Base stations are required to have a GPS and a connection to the > > Internet in order to query a geolocation spectrum database. Once the > > base station receives the allowed TV channels, it communicates a > > preferred operating white space TV channel with the Client Premises > > Equipment (CPE) devices. The standard also has a co-existence > > mechanism that uses beacons to make other 802.22 base stations aware > > of the presence of a base station that is not part of the same > > network. > > > > 5. Network and architecture issues > > > > 5.1. Layer 3 > > > > 5.1.1. IP addressing > > > > Most known Alternative Networks started in or around the year 2000. > > IPv6 was fully specified by then, but almost all Alternative Networks > > still use IPv4. A survey [Avonts] indicated that IPv6 rollout > > presents a challenge to Community Networks. > > > > Most Community Networks use private IPv4 address ranges, as defined > > by RFC 1918 [RFC1918]. The motivation for this was the lower cost > > and the simplified IP allocation because of the large available > > address ranges. > > > > 5.1.2. Routing protocols > > > > Alternative Networks are composed of possibly different layer 2 > > devices, resulting in a mesh of nodes. Connection between different > > nodes is not guaranteed and the link stability can vary strongly over > > time. To tackle this, some Alternative Networks use mesh network > > routing protocols while other networks use more traditional routing > > protocols. Some networks operate multiple routing protocols in > > parallel. For example, they use a mesh protocol inside different > > islands and use traditional routing protocols to connect islands. > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 20] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > 5.1.2.1. Traditional routing protocols > > > > The BGP protocol, as defined by RFC 4271 [RFC4271] is used by a > > number of Community Networks, because of its well-studied behavior > > and scalability. > > > > For similar reasons, smaller networks opt to run the OSPF protocol, > > as defined by RFC 2328 [RFC2328]. > > > > 5.1.2.2. Mesh routing protocols > > > > A large number of Alternative Networks use the OLSR routing protocol > > as defined in RFC 3626 [RFC3626]. The pro-active link state routing > > protocol is a good match with Alternative Networks because it has > > good performance in mesh networks where nodes have multiple > > interfaces. > > > > The Better Approach To Mobile Adhoc Networking (BATMAN) [Abolhasan] > > protocol was developed by members of the Freifunk community. The > > protocol handles all routing at layer 2, creating one bridged > > network. > > > > Parallel to BGP, some networks also run the BMX6 protocol [Neumann]. > > This is an advanced version of the BATMAN protocol which is based on > > IPv6 and tries to exploit the social structure of Alternative > > Networks. > > > > 5.2. Upper layers > > > > From crowdshared perspective, and considering just regular TCP > > connections during the critical sharing time, the Access Point > > offering the service is likely to be the bottleneck of the > > connection. This is the main concern of sharers, having several > > implications. There should be an adequate Active Queue Management > > (AQM) mechanism that implements a Less than Best Effort (LBE) policy > > for the user and protects the sharer. Achieving LBE behaviour > > requires the appropriate tuning of the well known mechanisms such as > > ECN, or RED, or others more recent AQM mechanisms such as CoDel and > > PIE that aid on keeping low latency RFC 6297 [RFC6297]. > > > > The user traffic should not interfere with the sharer's traffic. > > However, other bottlenecks besides client's access bottleneck may not > > be controlled by the previously mentioned protocols. Therefore, > > recently proposed transport protocols like LEDBAT [Ros], [Komnios] > > with the purpose of transporting scavenger traffic may be a solution. > > LEDBAT requires the cooperation of both the client and the server to > > achieve certain target delay, therefore controlling the impact of the > > user along all the path. > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 21] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > There are applications that manage aspects of the network from the > > sharer side and from the client side. From sharer's side, there are > > applications to centralise the management of the APs conforming the > > network that have been recently proposed by means of SDN > > [Sathiaseelan_a], [Suresh]. There are also other proposals such as > > Wi2Me [Lampropulos] that manage the connection to several Community > > Networks from the client's side. These applications have shown to > > improve the client performance compared to a single-Community Network > > client. > > > > On the other hand, transport protocols inside a multiple hop wireless > > mesh network are likely to suffer performance degradation for > > multiple reasons, e.g., hidden terminal problem, unnecessary delays > > on the TCP ACK clocking that decrease the throughout or route > > changing [Hanbali]. There are some options for network > > configuration. The implementation of an easy-to-adopt solution for > > TCP over mesh networks may be implemented from two different > > perspectives. One way is to use a TCP-proxy to transparently deal > > with the different impairments (RFC 3135 [RFC3135]). Another way is > > to adopt end-to-end solutions for monitoring the connection delay so > > that the receiver adapts the TCP reception window (rwnd) > > [Castignani_c]. Similarly, the ACK Congestion Control (ACKCC) > > mechanism RFC 5690 [RFC5690] could deal with TCP-ACK clocking > > impairments due to inappropriate delay on ACK packets. ACKCC > > compensates in an end-to-end fashion the throughput degradation due > > to the effect of media contention as well as the unfairness > > experienced by multiple uplink TCP flows in a congested Wi-Fi access. > > > > 5.2.1. Services provided by Alternative Networks > > > > This section provides an overview of the services between hosts > > inside the network. They can be divided into Intranet services, > > connecting hosts between them, and Internet services, connecting to > > nodes outside the network. > > > > 5.2.1.1. Intranet services > > > > Intranet services can include, but are not limited to: > > > > - VoIP (e.g. with SIP) > > > > - Remote desktop (e.g. using my home computer and my Internet > > connection when I am on holidays in a village). > > > > - FTP file sharing (e.g. distribution of Linux software). > > > > - P2P file sharing. > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 22] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > - Public video cameras. > > > > - DNS. > > > > - Online games servers. > > > > - Jabber instant messaging. > > > > - IRC chat. > > > > - Weather stations. > > > > - NTP. > > > > - Network monitoring. > > > > - Videoconferencing / streaming. > > > > - Radio streaming. > > > > 5.2.1.2. Access to the Internet > > > > 5.2.1.2.1. Web browsing proxies > > > > A number of federated proxies MAY provide web browsing service for > > the users. Other services (file sharing, skype, etc.) are not > > usually allowed in many Alternative Networks due to bandwidth > > limitations. > > > > 5.2.1.2.2. Use of VPNs > > > > Some "micro-ISPs" may use the network as a backhaul for providing > > Internet access, setting up VPNs from the client to a machine with > > Internet access. > > > > 5.3. Topology > > > > Alternative Networks follow different topology patterns, as studied > > in [Vega]. > > > > Regularly rural areas in these networks are connected through long- > > distance links (the so-called community mesh approach) which in turn > > convey the Internet connection to relevant organisations or > > institutions. In contrast, in urban areas, users tend to share and > > require mobile access. Since these areas are also likely to be > > covered by commercial ISPs, the provision of wireless access by > > Virtual Operators like [Fon] may constitute a way to extend the user > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 23] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > capacity (or gain connection) to the network. Other proposals like > > Virtual Public Networks [Sathiaseelan_a] can also extend the service. > > > > As in the case of main Internet Service Providers in France, > > Community Networks for urban areas are conceived as a set of APs > > sharing a common SSID among the clients favouring the nomadic access. > > For users in France, ISPs promise to cause a little impact on their > > service agreement when the shared network service is activated on > > clients' APs. Nowadays, millions of APs are deployed around the > > country performing services of nomadism and 3G offloading, however as > > some studies demonstrate, at walking speed, there is a fair chance of > > performing file transfers [Castignani_a], [Castignani_b]. Scenarios > > studied in France and Luxembourg show that the density of APs in > > urban areas (mainly in downtown and residential areas) is quite big > > and from different ISPs. Moreover, performed studies reveal that > > aggregating available networks can be beneficial to the client by > > using an application that manages the best connection among the > > different networks. For improving the scanning process (or topology > > recognition), which consumes the 90% of the connection/reconnection > > process to the Community Network, the client may implement several > > techniques for selecting the best AP [Castignani_c]. > > > > 6. Acknowledgements > > > > This work has been partially funded by the CONFINE European > > Commission Project (FP7 - 288535). > > > > The editor and the authors of this document wish to thank the > > following individuals who have participated in the drafting, review, > > and discussion of this memo: > > > > Paul M. Aoki, Roger Baig, Jaume Barcelo, Steven G. Huter, Rohan > > Mahy, Rute Sofia, Dirk Trossen. > > > > A special thanks to the GAIA Working Group chairs Matt Ford and > > s/Matt/Mat/ > > > Arjuna Sathiaseelan for their support and guidance. > > > > 7. Contributing Authors > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 24] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > Ioannis Komnios > > Democritus University of Thrace > > Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering > > Kimmeria University Campus > > Xanthi 67100 > > Greece > > > > Phone: +306945406585 > > Email: ikomnios@ee.duth.gr > > > > > > Steve Song > > Village Telco Limited > > > > > > Halifax > > Canada > > > > Phone: > > Email: stevesong@nsrc.org > > > > > > David Lloyd Johnson > > Meraka, CSIR > > 15 Lower Hope St > > Rosebank 7700 > > South Africa > > > > Phone: +27 (0)21 658 2740 > > Email: djohnson@csir.co.za > > > > 8. IANA Considerations > > > > This memo includes no request to IANA. > > > > 9. Security Considerations > > > > No security issues have been identified for this document. > > > > 10. References > > > > 10.1. Normative References > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 25] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > [IEEE.802-11A.1999] > > "Information technology - Telecommunications and > > information exchange between systems - Local and > > metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part > > 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical > > Layer (PHY) specifications - High-speed Physical Layer in > > the 5 GHZ Band", IEEE Standard 802.11a, Sept 1999, > > > download/802.11a-1999.pdf>. > > > > [IEEE.802-11AF.2013] > > "Information technology - Telecommunications and > > information exchange between systems - Local and > > metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part > > 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical > > Layer (PHY) specifications - Amendment 5: Television White > > Spaces (TVWS) Operation", IEEE Standard 802.11af, Oct > > 2009, > download/802.11af-2013.pdf>. > > > > [IEEE.802-11B.1999] > > "Information technology - Telecommunications and > > information exchange between systems - Local and > > metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part > > 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical > > Layer (PHY) specifications - Higher-Speed Physical Layer > > Extension in the 2.4 GHz Band", IEEE Standard 802.11b, > > Sept 1999, > download/802.11b-1999.pdf>. > > > > [IEEE.802-11G.2003] > > "Information technology - Telecommunications and > > information exchange between systems - Local and > > metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part > > 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical > > Layer (PHY) specifications - Amendment 4: Further Higher > > Data Rate Extension in the 2.4 GHz Band", IEEE Standard > > 802.11g, Jun 2003, > download/802.11g-2003.pdf>. > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 26] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > [IEEE.802-11N.2009] > > "Information technology - Telecommunications and > > information exchange between systems - Local and > > metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part > > 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical > > Layer (PHY) specifications - Amendment 5: Enhancements for > > Higher Throughput", IEEE Standard 802.11n, Oct 2009, > > > download/802.11n-2009.pdf>. > > > > [IEEE.802-16.2008] > > "Information technology - Telecommunications and > > information exchange between systems - Broadband wireless > > metropolitan area networks (MANs) - IEEE Standard for Air > > Interface for Broadband Wireless Access Systems", IE > > EE > > Standard 802.16, Jun 2008, > > > download/802.16-2012.pdf>. > > > > [IEEE.802-22.2011] > > "Information technology - Telecommunications and > > information exchange between systems - Local and > > metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part > > 22: Cognitive Wireless RAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and > > Physical Layer (PHY) specifications: Policies and > > procedures for operation in the TV Bands", IEEE Standard > > 802.22, Jul 2011, > download/802.11af-2013.pdf>. > > > > [RFC1918] Rekhter, Y., Moskowitz, R., Karrenberg, D., Groot, G., and > > E. Lear, "Address Allocation for Private Internets", BCP > > 5, RFC 1918, February 1996. > > > > [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate > > Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. > > > > [RFC2328] Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", STD 54, RFC 2328, April 1998. > > > > [RFC3135] Border, J., Kojo, M., Griner, J., Montenegro, G., and Z. > > Shelby, "Performance Enhancing Proxies Intended to > > Mitigate Link-Related Degradations", RFC 3135, June 2001. > > > > [RFC3626] Clausen, T. and P. Jacquet, "Optimized Link State Routing > > Protocol (OLSR)", RFC 3626, October 2003. > > > > [RFC4271] Rekhter, Y., Li, T., and S. Hares, "A Border Gateway > > Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", RFC 4271, January 2006. > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 27] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > [RFC5690] Floyd, S., Arcia, A., Ros, D., and J. Iyengar, "Adding > > Acknowledgement Congestion Control to TCP", RFC 5690, > > February 2010. > > > > [RFC6297] Welzl, M. and D. Ros, "A Survey of Lower-than-Best-Effort > > Transport Protocols", RFC 6297, June 2011. > > > > 10.2. Informative References > > > > [Abolhasan] > > Abolhasan, M., Hagelstein, B., and J. Wang, "Real-world > > performance of current proactive multi-hop mesh > > protocols", In Communications, 2009. APCC 2009. 15th Asia- > > Pacific Conference on (pp. 44-47). IEEE. , 2009. > > > > [Airjaldi] > > Rural Broadband (RBB) Pvt. Ltd., Airjaldi., "Airjaldi > > service", Airjaldi web page, www.airjaldi.net , 2015. > > > > [Avonts] Avonts, J., Braem, B., and C. Blondia, "A Questionnaire > > based Examination of Community Networks", Proceedings > > Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and > > Communications (WiMob), 2013 IEEE 8th International > > Conference on (pp. 8-15) , 2013. > > > > [Bernardi] > > Bernardi, B., Buneman, P., and M. Marina, "Tegola tiered > > mesh network testbed in rural Scotland", Proceedings of > > the 2008 ACM workshop on Wireless networks and systems for > > developing regions (WiNS-DR '08). ACM, New York, NY, USA, > > 9-16 , 2008. > > > > [Braem] Braem, B., Baig Vinas, R., Kaplan, A., Neumann, A., Vilata > > i Balaguer, I., Tatum, B., Matson, M., Blondia, C., Barz, > > C., Rogge, H., Freitag, F., Navarro, L., Bonicioli, J., > > Papathanasiou, S., and P. Escrich, "A case for research > > with and on community networks", ACM SIGCOMM Computer > > Communication Review vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 68-73, 2013. > > > > [Castignani_a] > > Castignani, G., Loiseau, L., and N. Montavont, "An > > Evaluation of IEEE 802.11 Community Networks Deployments", > > Information Networking (ICOIN), 2011 International > > Conference on , vol., no., pp.498,503, 26-28 , 2011. > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 28] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > [Castignani_b] > > Castignani, G., Monetti, J., Montavont, N., Arcia-Moret, > > A., Frank, R., and T. Engel, "A Study of Urban IEEE 802.11 > > Hotspot Networks: Towards a Community Access Network", > > Wireless Days (WD), 2013 IFIP , pp.1,8, 13-15 , 2013. > > > > [Castignani_c] > > Castignani, G., Arcia-Moret, A., and N. Montavont, "A > > study of the discovery process in 802.11 networks", > > SIGMOBILE Mob. Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 15, no. 1, p. 25 > > , 2011. > > > > [DAE] European Commission, EC., "A Digital Agenda for Europe", > > Communication from the Commission of 19 May 2010 to the > > European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic > > and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - A > > Digital Agenda for Europe , 2010. > > > > [Everylayer] > > former Volo Broadband, Everylayer., "Everylayer", > > Everylayer web page, http://www.everylayer.com/ , 2015. > > > > [FNF] The Free Network Foundation, FNF., "The Free Network > > Foundation", The Free Network Foundation web page, > > https://thefnf.org/ , 2014. > > > > [Flickenger] > > Flickenger, R., Okay, S., Pietrosemoli, E., Zennaro, M., > > and C. Fonda, "Very Long Distance Wi-Fi Networks", NSDR > > 2008, The Second ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Networked Systems > > for Developing Regions. USA, 2008 , 2008. > > > > [Fon] Fon Wireless Limited, Fon., "What is Fon", Fon web page, > > https://corp.fon.com/en , 2014. > > > > [Hanbali] Hanbali, A., Altman, E., and P. Nain, "A Survey of TCP > > over Ad Hoc Networks", IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. > > 7, pp. 22-36 , 2005. > > > > [Heer] Heer, T., Hummen, R., Viol, N., Wirtz, H., Gotz, S., and > > K. Wehrle, "Collaborative municipal Wi-Fi networks- > > challenges and opportunities", Pervasive Computing and > > Communications Workshops (PERCOM Workshops), 2010 8th IEEE > > International Conference on (pp. 588-593). IEEE. , 2010. > > > > [IEEE] Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, IEEE, > > "IEEE Standards association", 2012. > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 29] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > [Komnios] Komnios, I., Sathiaseelan, A., and J. Crowcroft, "LEDBAT > > performance in subpacket regimes", IEEE/IFIP WONS, > > Austria, April 2014 , 2014. > > > > [Lampropulos] > > Lampropulos, A., Castignani, G., Blanc, A., and N. > > Montavont, "Wi2Me: A Mobile Sensing Platform for Wireless > > Heterogeneous Networks", 32nd International Conference on > > Distributed Computing Systems Workshops (ICDCS Workshops), > > 2012, pp. 108-113 , 2012. > > > > [Lowenstedt] > > Huggler, J., "Lowenstedt Villagers Built Own Fiber Optic > > Network", The Telegraph, 03 Jun 2014, available at > > http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/ > > germany/10871150/ > > German-villagers-set-up-their-own-broadband-network.html , > > 2014. > > > > [Mexican] Varma, S., "Lowenstedt Villagers Built Own Fiber Optic > > Network", The Times of India, 27 Aug 2013, available at > > http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/rest-of-world/ > > Ignored-by-big-companies-Mexican-village-creates-its-own- > > mobile-service/articleshow/22094736.cms , 2013. > > > > [Neumann] Neumann, A., Lopez, E., and L. Navarro, "An evaluation of > > bmx6 for community wireless networks", In Wireless and > > Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob), > > 2012 IEEE 8th International Conference on (pp. 651-658). > > IEEE. , 2012. > > > > [PAWS] Sathiaseelan, A., Crowcroft, J., Goulden, M., > > Greiffenhagen, C., Mortier, R., Fairhurst, G., and D. > > McAuley, "Public Access WiFi Service (PAWS)", Digital > > Economy All Hands Meeting, Aberdeen , Oct 2012. > > > > [Pietrosemoli] > > Pietrosemoli, E., Zennaro, M., and C. Fonda, "Low cost > > carrier independent telecommunications infrastructure", In > > proc. 4th Global Information Infrastructure and Networking > > Symposium, Choroni, Venezuela , 2012. > > > > [Rendon] Rendon, A., Ludena, P., and A. Martinez Fernandez, > > "Tecnologias de la Informacion y las Comunicaciones para > > zonas rurales Aplicacion a la atencion de salud en paises > > en desarrollo", CYTED. Programa Iberoamericano de Ciencia > > y Tecnologia para el Desarrollo , 2011. > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 30] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > [Ros] Ros, D. and M. Welzl, "Assessing LEDBAT's Delay Impact", > > Communications Letters, IEEE , vol.17, no.5, pp.1044,1047, > > May 2013 , 2013. > > > > [Samanta] Samanta, V., Knowles, C., Wagmister, J., and D. Estrin, > > "Metropolitan Wi-Fi Research Network at the Los Angeles > > State Historic Park", The Journal of Community > > Informatics, North America, 4 , May 2008. > > > > [Sathiaseelan_a] > > Sathiaseelan, A., Rotsos, C., Sriram, C., Trossen, D., > > Papadimitriou, P., and J. Crowcroft, "Virtual Public > > Networks", In Software Defined Networks (EWSDN), 2013 > > Second European Workshop on (pp. 1-6). IEEE. , 2013. > > > > [Sathiaseelan_b] > > Sathiaseelan, A. and J. Crowcroft, "LCD-Net: Lowest Cost > > Denominator Networking", ACM SIGCOMM Computer > > Communication Review , Apr 2013. > > > > [Sathiaseelan_c] > > Sathiaseelan, A., Mortier, R., Goulden, M., Greiffenhagen, > > C., Radenkovic, M., Crowcroft, J., and D. McAuley, "A > > Feasibility Study of an In-the-Wild Experimental Public > > Access WiFi Network", ACM DEV 5, Proceedings of the Fifth > > ACM Symposium on Computing for Development, San Jose , Dec > > 2014 pp 33-42, 2014. > > > > [Suresh] Suresh, L., Schulz-Zander, J., Merz, R., Feldmann, A., and > > T. Vazao, "Towards Programmable Enterprise WLANs with > > ODIN", In Proceedings of the first workshop on Hot topics > > in software defined networks (HotSDN '12). ACM, New York, > > NY, USA, 115-120 , 2012. > > > > [Vega] Vega, D., Cerda-Alabern, L., Navarro, L., and R. Meseguer, > > "Topology patterns of a community network: Guifi. net.", > > Proceedings Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and > > Communications (WiMob), 2012 IEEE 8th International > > Conference on (pp. 612-619) , 2012. > > > > [WNDW] Wireless Networking in the Developing World/Core > > Contributors, "Wireless Networking in the Developing > > World, 3rd Edition", The WNDW Project, available at > > wndw.net , 2013. > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 31] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > [WSIS] International Telecommunications Union, ITU, "Declaration > > of Principles. Building the Information Society: A global > > challenge in the new millenium", World Summit on the > > Information Society, 2003, at http://www.itu.int/wsis, > > accessed 12 January 2004. , Dec 2013. > > > > [Zennaro] Zennaro, M., Fonda, C., Pietrosemoli, E., Muyepa, A., > > Okay, S., Flickenger, R., and S. Radicella, "On a long > > wireless link for rural telemedicine in Malawi", 6th > > International Conference on Open Access, Lilongwe, Malawi > > , Nov 2008. > > > > Authors' Addresses > > > > Jose Saldana (editor) > > University of Zaragoza > > Dpt. IEC Ada Byron Building > > Zaragoza 50018 > > Spain > > > > Phone: +34 976 762 698 > > Email: jsaldana@unizar.es > > > > > > Andres Arcia-Moret > > Universidad de Los Andes > > Facultad de Ingenieria. Sector La Hechicera > > Merida 5101 > > Venezuela > > > > Phone: +58 274 2402811 > > Email: andres.arcia@ula.ve > > > > > > Bart Braem > > iMinds > > Gaston Crommenlaan 8 (bus 102) > > Gent 9050 > > Belgium > > > > Phone: +32 3 265 38 64 > > Email: bart.braem@iminds.be > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 32] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > Leandro Navarro > > U. Politecnica Catalunya > > Jordi Girona, 1-3, D6 > > Barcelona 08034 > > Spain > > > > Phone: +34 934016807 > > Email: leandro@ac.upc.edu > > > > > > Ermanno Pietrosemoli > > ICTP > > Via Beirut 7 > > Trieste 34151 > > Italy > > > > Phone: +39 040 2240 471 > > Email: ermanno@ictp.it > > > > > > Carlos Rey-Moreno > > University of the Western Cape > > Robert Sobukwe road > > Bellville 7535 > > South Africa > > > > Phone: 0027219592562 > > Email: crey-moreno@uwc.ac.za > > > > > > Arjuna Sathiaseelan > > University of Cambridge > > 15 JJ Thomson Avenue > > Cambridge CB30FD > > United Kingdom > > > > Phone: +44 (0)1223 763781 > > Email: arjuna.sathiaseelan@cl.cam.ac.uk > > > > > > Marco Zennaro > > Abdus Salam ICTP > > Strada Costiera 11 > > Trieste 34100 > > Italy > > > > Phone: +39 040 2240 406 > > Email: mzennaro@ictp.it > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 33] > > Mat From nobody Mon Feb 9 06:54:34 2015 Return-Path: X-Original-To: gaia@ietfa.amsl.com Delivered-To: gaia@ietfa.amsl.com Received: from localhost (ietfa.amsl.com [127.0.0.1]) by ietfa.amsl.com (Postfix) with ESMTP id 28A601A19E3 for ; Mon, 9 Feb 2015 06:41:18 -0800 (PST) X-Virus-Scanned: amavisd-new at amsl.com X-Spam-Flag: NO X-Spam-Score: 2.543 X-Spam-Level: ** X-Spam-Status: No, score=2.543 tagged_above=-999 required=5 tests=[BAYES_50=0.8, DKIM_SIGNED=0.1, FM_FORGED_GMAIL=0.622, FREEMAIL_FROM=0.001, GB_AFFORDABLE=1, HTML_MESSAGE=0.001, SPF_PASS=-0.001, T_DKIM_INVALID=0.01, T_FREEMAIL_DOC_PDF=0.01] autolearn=no Received: from mail.ietf.org ([4.31.198.44]) by localhost (ietfa.amsl.com [127.0.0.1]) (amavisd-new, port 10024) with ESMTP id jmy1QHAOJ2nr for ; Mon, 9 Feb 2015 06:41:16 -0800 (PST) Received: from mail-we0-x22f.google.com (mail-we0-x22f.google.com [IPv6:2a00:1450:400c:c03::22f]) (using TLSv1.2 with cipher ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 (128/128 bits)) (No client certificate requested) by ietfa.amsl.com (Postfix) with ESMTPS id 8AEDC1A0A85 for ; Mon, 9 Feb 2015 06:41:05 -0800 (PST) Received: by mail-we0-f175.google.com with SMTP id x3so2349075wes.6 for ; Mon, 09 Feb 2015 06:41:04 -0800 (PST) DKIM-Signature: v=1; a=rsa-sha256; c=relaxed/relaxed; d=gmail.com; s=20120113; h=mime-version:sender:date:message-id:subject:from:to:content-type; bh=GjD5AT+dkee216XGhFCA0eOHHMFkyZS3iJZZrs9GXDw=; b=jg8WmHRkJWiBbjNxO5NElQpU41qNsOfzxeH54IBpQcyt5qnEiJhJxgmdRb74Y4U9de os+tT6YDcySXL8/VsNiuI5pXzarTiyTpgfC5/i/Sd/gxJ7ZkxlkCxaiLG/IDq6shX9s0 MUjvYoHFo1xqv/LIrCTRGIvQVWjRh9KjYD+aRC3xVn25uhCC9L7LRJB8vJirjd+/6KK8 H0sJ1EYfpuQeKV8tVpIs0z5kjJciXnniMEpFDomN6dQgx85X+XIOmAY7YLS6P7R15Mld JNuB3RlDDVvOgqRlY4Kb9XFu/lez7f8AerAvHnRhOXgWOQUfBPd06qYPu5yxTv5izrlX fSNA== MIME-Version: 1.0 X-Received: by 10.180.103.102 with SMTP id fv6mr35630992wib.80.1423492863853; Mon, 09 Feb 2015 06:41:03 -0800 (PST) Sender: arjuna.sathiaseelan@gmail.com Received: by 10.27.216.3 with HTTP; Mon, 9 Feb 2015 06:41:03 -0800 (PST) Date: Mon, 9 Feb 2015 14:41:03 +0000 X-Google-Sender-Auth: fNMVirinfopo5cp1MnacUelBg-M Message-ID: From: Arjuna Sathiaseelan To: gaia Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary=f46d0444eab37db654050ea8c219 Archived-At: Subject: [gaia] Smart data pricing survey results X-BeenThere: gaia@irtf.org X-Mailman-Version: 2.1.15 Precedence: list List-Id: Global Access to the Internet for All List-Unsubscribe: , List-Archive: List-Post: List-Help: List-Subscribe: , X-List-Received-Date: Mon, 09 Feb 2015 14:41:18 -0000 --f46d0444eab37db654050ea8c219 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary=f46d0444eab37db64f050ea8c217 --f46d0444eab37db64f050ea8c217 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8 All, Sometime back, I had sent a request to the operators in the list to fill in the survey for exploring the role of smart data pricing in enabling affordable internet access. We have written this up as a paper that will be published at the IEEE INFOCOM Smart Data Pricing Workshop in April. Any feedback is always useful. Thanks. Paper attached herewith. Regards. -- Arjuna Sathiaseelan Personal: http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~as2330/ N4D Lab: http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~as2330/n4d --f46d0444eab37db64f050ea8c217 Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
All,
=C2=A0 Sometime back, I had sent a request to the= operators in the list to fill in the survey for exploring the role of smar= t data pricing in enabling affordable internet access. We have written this= up as a paper that will be published at the IEEE INFOCOM Smart Data Pricin= g Workshop in April. Any feedback is always useful. Thanks.

<= /div>
Paper attached herewith.

Regards.

--
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f0vTBKxY9h8kYe0lNU2SRVi3HwLr8VX+AVx1MfEKZW5kc3RyZWFtCmVuZG9iagpzdGFydHhyZWYK MzEyMDEzCiUlRU9GCg== --f46d0444eab37db654050ea8c219-- From nobody Mon Feb 9 15:41:31 2015 Return-Path: X-Original-To: gaia@ietfa.amsl.com Delivered-To: gaia@ietfa.amsl.com Received: from localhost (ietfa.amsl.com [127.0.0.1]) by ietfa.amsl.com (Postfix) with ESMTP id A39A41A1A5A for ; Mon, 9 Feb 2015 07:29:09 -0800 (PST) X-Virus-Scanned: amavisd-new at amsl.com X-Spam-Flag: NO X-Spam-Score: 3.047 X-Spam-Level: *** X-Spam-Status: No, score=3.047 tagged_above=-999 required=5 tests=[BAYES_50=0.8, GB_AFFORDABLE=1, GB_I_LETTER=-2, GB_SUMOF=1, HTML_MESSAGE=0.001, HTML_TAG_BALANCE_BODY=1.157, J_BACKHAIR_11=1, MANY_SPAN_IN_TEXT=2.4, RCVD_IN_DNSWL_MED=-2.3, SPF_PASS=-0.001, T_RP_MATCHES_RCVD=-0.01] autolearn=no Received: from mail.ietf.org ([4.31.198.44]) by localhost (ietfa.amsl.com [127.0.0.1]) (amavisd-new, port 10024) with ESMTP id rNkiqMAV5-QD for ; Mon, 9 Feb 2015 07:28:51 -0800 (PST) Received: from isuela.unizar.es (isuela.unizar.es [155.210.1.53]) (using TLSv1 with cipher DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA (256/256 bits)) (No client certificate requested) by ietfa.amsl.com (Postfix) with ESMTPS id CE0661A1A62 for ; Mon, 9 Feb 2015 07:27:02 -0800 (PST) Received: from usuarioPC (gtc1pc12.cps.unizar.es [155.210.158.17]) by isuela.unizar.es (8.13.8/8.13.8/Debian-3) with ESMTP id t19FQrZV024757; Mon, 9 Feb 2015 16:26:53 +0100 From: "Jose Saldana" To: , "'Matthew Ford'" Date: Mon, 9 Feb 2015 16:27:00 +0100 Message-ID: <000001d0447c$d9b781a0$8d2684e0$@unizar.es> MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_0001_01D04485.3B93B760" X-Mailer: Microsoft Outlook 14.0 Thread-Index: AdBEe5GDke+Zi097T4aRmmrcN/xg8Q== Content-Language: es X-Mail-Scanned: Criba 2.0 + Clamd & Bogofilter Archived-At: Subject: Re: [gaia] New Version Notification for draft-manyfolks-gaia-community-networks-02.txt. Sharper identification X-BeenThere: gaia@irtf.org X-Mailman-Version: 2.1.15 Precedence: list List-Id: Global Access to the Internet for All List-Unsubscribe: , List-Archive: List-Post: List-Help: List-Subscribe: , X-List-Received-Date: Mon, 09 Feb 2015 15:29:09 -0000 This is a multipart message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_0001_01D04485.3B93B760 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Hi all, Mat has sent this suggestion: > A general observation: I find the taxonomical aspect a bit lacking at present. I would > like to have a sharper identification of the characteristics of identified alternative > network types that distinguishes them. Is it the commercial model? Is it the > centralisation or decentralisation of network management? The descriptions are fine > as far as they go, but if there's something unique about the different types that > clearly distinguishes them it would help to call that out better. Maybe a matrix of the > various identified types of network and some of the important characteristics would > be appropriate. This is the current classification (section 2): 2.1. Community Networks 2.1.1. Free Networks 2.2. Wireless Internet Service Providers WISPs 2.3. Shared infrastructure model 2.4. Crowdshared approaches, led by the people and third party stakeholders 2.5. Testbeds for research purposes Mat, are you suggesting to include a table like this?: | Commercial model | centralization | technologies | typical | | | | | scenarios | +------------------+----------------+--------------+-----------+ CNs | | | | | WISPx | | | | | Shared inf | | | | | Crowdshared | | | | | Testbeds | | | | | Which would be the titles of the columns? Are these ones enough? Comments and ideas will be welcome. Thanks, Jose > -----Mensaje original----- > De: Matthew Ford [mailto:ford@isoc.org] > Enviado el: viernes, 06 de febrero de 2015 12:57 > Para: Jose Saldana > CC: gaia@irtf.org > Asunto: Re: [gaia] New Version Notification for draft-manyfolks-gaia-community- > networks-02.txt > > Hi Jose, > > > On 21 Jan 2015, at 17:21, Jose Saldana < jsaldana@unizar.es> wrote: > > > > Hi all, > > > > We have just updated (and uploaded) a new version of the "Manyfolks draft": > Alternative Network Deployments. Taxonomy and characterization. > > > > URL: http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-manyfolks-gaia-community- > networks-02.txt > > > > 8< snip >8 > > > > > If you want to have a look to it and send your comments, it would be fine. > > > > Sure! > > A general observation: I find the taxonomical aspect a bit lacking at present. I would > like to have a sharper identification of the characteristics of identified alternative > network types that distinguishes them. Is it the commercial model? Is it the > centralisation or decentralisation of network management? The descriptions are fine > as far as they go, but if there's something unique about the different types that > clearly distinguishes them it would help to call that out better. Maybe a matrix of the > various identified types of network and some of the important characteristics would > be appropriate. > > Some more detailed comments inline: > > > > > > > > > Global Access to the Internet for All J. Saldana, Ed. > > Internet-Draft University of Zaragoza > > Intended status: Informational A. Arcia-Moret > > Expires: July 25, 2015 Universidad de Los Andes > > B. Braem > > iMinds > > L. Navarro > > U. Politecnica Catalunya > > E. Pietrosemoli > > ICTP > > C. Rey-Moreno > > University of the Western Cape > > A. Sathiaseelan > > University of Cambridge > > M. Zennaro > > Abdus Salam ICTP > > January 21, 2015 > > > > Please review: https://www.rfc-editor.org/policy.html#policy.authlist > > I suggest you may want to consider identifying a single Editor and moving other > authors to a Contributing authors section. > > > > > Alternative Network Deployments. Taxonomy and characterization > > Given how much of the document is dedicated to discussing the technologies > employed in alternative networks, and their architecture, I wonder about extending > the title, e.g. > > "Alternative Networks: Taxonomy, characterization, technologies and architectures" > > > draft-manyfolks-gaia-community-networks-02 > > > > Abstract > > > > This document presents a taxonomy of "Alternative Network > > deployments", and a set of definitions and shared characteristics. > > It also discusses the technologies employed in these network deployments, and their > differing architectural characteristics. > > > This term includes a set of network access models emerged in the last > > s/models emerged/models that have emerged/ > > > decade with the aim of bringing Internet connectivity to people, > > using topological, architectural and business models different from > > the so-called "traditional" ones, where a company deploys the network > > s/deploys/deploys or leases/ > > > infrastructure for connecting the users, who pay for it. > > Maybe s/who pay for it/who pay a subscription fee to be connected and make use > of it/ > > > Several initiatives throughout the world have built large scale > > networks that are alternative to the traditional network operator > > deployments using predominately wireless technologies (including long > > s/predominately/predominantly > > > distance) due to the reduced cost of using the unlicensed spectrum. > > Wired technologies such as Fiber are also used in some of these > > alternate networks. There are several types of such alternate > > network: networks such as community networks are self-organized and > > decentralized networks wholly owned by the community; networks owned > > by individuals who act as wireless internet service providers > > (WISPs), networks owned by individuals but leased out to network > > operators who use such networks as a low-cost medium to reach the > > underserved population and finally there are networks that provide > > connectivity by sharing wireless resources of the users. > > > > The emergence of these networks can be motivated by different causes > > such as the reluctance, or the impossibility, of network operators to > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 1] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > provide wired and cellular infrastructures to rural/remote areas. In > > these cases, the networks have self sustainable business models that > > provide more localised communication services as well as Internet > > backhaul support through peering agreements with traditional network > > operators. Some other times, networks are built as a complement and > > an alternative to commercial Internet access provided by > > "traditional" network operators. > > > > The present classification considers different existing network > > models such as Community Networks, open wireless services, user- > > extensible services, traditional local Internet Service Providers > > (ISPs), new global ISPs, etc. Different criteria are used in order > > to build a classification as e.g., the ownership of the equipment, > > the way the network is organized, the participatory model, the > > extensibility, if they are driven by a community, a company or a > > local (public or private) stakeholder, etc. > > > > According to the developed taxonomy, a characterization of each kind > > of network is presented, in terms of specific network characteristics > > related to architecture, organization, etc. > > > > Status of This Memo > > > > This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the > > provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. > > > > Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering > > Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute > > working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- > > Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. > > > > Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months > > and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any > > time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference > > material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." > > > > This Internet-Draft will expire on July 25, 2015. > > > > Copyright Notice > > > > Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the > > document authors. All rights reserved. > > > > This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal > > Provisions Relating to IETF Documents > > ( http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of > > publication of this document. Please review these documents > > carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 2] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must > > include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of > > the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as > > described in the Simplified BSD License. > > > > Table of Contents > > > > 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 > > 1.1. Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 > > 2. Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 > > 2.1. Community Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 > > 2.1.1. Free Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 > > 2.2. Wireless Internet Service Providers WISPs . . . . . . . . 7 > > 2.3. Shared infrastructure model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 > > 2.4. Crowdshared approaches, led by the people and third party > > stakeholders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 > > 2.5. Testbeds for research purposes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 > > 3. Scenarios where Alternative Networks are deployed . . . . . . 9 > > 3.1. Digital Divide and Alternative Networks . . . . . . . . . 9 > > 3.2. Urban vs. rural areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 > > 4. Technologies employed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 > > 4.1. Wired . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 > > 4.2. Wireless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 > > 4.2.1. Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 > > 4.2.2. Link length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 > > 4.2.2.1. Line-of-Sight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 > > 4.2.2.2. Transmitted and Received Power . . . . . . . . . 15 > > 4.2.2.3. Medium Access Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 > > 4.2.3. Layer 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 > > 4.2.3.1. 802.11 (Wi-Fi) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 > > 4.2.3.2. GSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 > > 4.2.3.3. Dynamic Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 > > 5. Network and architecture issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 > > 5.1. Layer 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 > > 5.1.1. IP addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 > > 5.1.2. Routing protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 > > 5.1.2.1. Traditional routing protocols . . . . . . . . . . 21 > > 5.1.2.2. Mesh routing protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 > > 5.2. Upper layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 > > 5.2.1. Services provided by Alternative Networks . . . . . . 22 > > 5.2.1.1. Intranet services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 > > 5.2.1.2. Access to the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 > > 5.3. Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 > > 6. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 > > 7. Contributing Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 > > 8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 > > 9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 > > 10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 3] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > 10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 > > 10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 > > Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 > > > > 1. Introduction > > > > Several initiatives throughout the world have built large scale > > networks that are alternative to the traditional network operator > > deployments using predominately wireless technologies (including long > > s/predominately/predominantly > > > distance) due to the reduced cost of using the unlicensed spectrum. > > Wired technologies such as Fiber are also used in some of these > > alternate networks. There are several types of such alternate > > network: networks such as community networks are self-organized and > > decentralized networks wholly owned by the community; networks owned > > by individuals who act as wireless internet service providers > > (WISPs), networks owned by individuals but leased out to network > > operators who use such networks as a low cost medium to reach the > > underserved population and finally there are networks that provide > > connectivity by sharing wireless resources of the users. > > > > The emergence of these networks can be motivated by different causes, > > as the reluctance, or the impossibility, of network operators to > > provide wired and cellular infrastructures to rural/remote areas > > [Pietrosemoli]. In these cases, the networks have self sustainable > > business models that provide more localised communication services as > > well as Internet backhaul support through peering agreements with > > traditional network operators. Some other times, they are built as a > > complement and an alternative to commercial Internet access provided > > by "traditional" network operators. > > > > One of the aims of the Global Access to the Internet for All (GAIA) > > IRTF initiative is "to document and share deployment experiences and > > research results to the wider community through scholarly > > publications, white papers, Informational and Experimental RFCs, > > etc." In line with this objective, this document is intended to > > propose a classification of these "Alternative Network deployments". > > This term includes a set of network access models emerged in the last > > s/models emerged/models that have emerged/ > > > decade with the aim of bringing Internet connectivity to people, > > following topological, architectural and business models different > > from the so-called "traditional" ones, where a company deploys the > > infrastructure connecting the users, who pay for it. The document is > > Maybe s/who pay for it/who pay a subscription fee to be connected and make use > of it/ > > > intended to be largely descriptive providing a broad overview of > > initiatives, technologies and approaches employed in these networks. > > Research references describing each kind of network are also > > provided. > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 4] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > 1.1. Requirements Language > > > > The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", > > "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" > in this > > document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. > > This document is not on the standards track, so this section is not necessary. Also, > capitalisation of words like CAN and MAY later in the draft is not appropriate. > > > > > 2. Classification > > > > This section classifies Alternative Networks (ANs) according to their > > intended usage. Each of them has different incentive structures, > > maybe common technological challenges, but most importantly > > interesting usage challenges which feeds into the incentives as well > > as the technological challenges. > > > > This classification is agnostic from the technical point of view. > > Technology in this case must be taken as implementation. Moreover, > > many of these networks are implemented in a way that several > > technologies (Ad-Hoc Wi-Fi, Infrastructure Wi-Fi, Optical Fiber, > > IPv4, IPv6, RFC1918, OLSR, BMX6, etc.) coexist. > > I wonder if it might be helpful for the reader to include a loose definition of > 'traditional' network, to compare these alternatives with. What is the defining > characteristic that makes these alternatives different? > > > > > 2.1. Community Networks > > > > Community Networks are large-scale, distributed, self-managed > > networks sharing these characteristics: > > > > - They are built and organized in a decentralized and open manner. > > > > - They start and grow organically, they are open to participation > > from everyone, sometimes agreeing to an open peering agreement. > > Community members directly contribute active network infrastructure > > (not just passive infrastructure). > > > > - Knowledge about building and maintaining the network and ownership > > of the network itself is decentralized and open. Community members > > have an obvious and direct form of organizational control over the > > overall operation of the network in their community (not just their > > own participation in the network). > > > > - The network CAN serve as a backhaul for providing a whole range of > > services and applications, from completely free to even commercial > > services. > > > > No need to capitalise CAN. This document is not standards track or normative. This > applies throughout the document, but I'm not going to comment every time. > > > Hardware and software used in Community Networks CAN be very diverse, > > even inside one network. A Community Network CAN have both wired and > > wireless links. The network CAN be managed by multiple routing > > protocols or network topology management systems. > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 5] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > These networks grow organically, since they are formed by the > > aggregation of nodes belonging to different users. A minimum > > governance infrastructure is required in order to coordinate IP > > addressing, routing, etc. A clear example of this kind of Community > > Network is described in [Braem]. These networks are effective in > > enhancing and extending digital Internet rights following a > > participatory model. > > I couldn't parse the final sentence of that para. > > > > > The fact of the users adding new infrastructure (i.e. extensibility) > > can be used to formulate another definition: A Community Network is a > > network in which any participant in the system may add link segments > > to the network in such a way that the new network segments can > > support multiple nodes and adopt the same overall characteristics as > > those of the joined network, including the capacity to further extend > > the network. Once these link segments are joined to the network, > > there is no longer a meaningful distinction between the previous > > extent of the network and the new extent of the network. > > > > In Community Networks, the profit can only be made by services and > > not by the infrastructure itself, because the infrastructure is > > neutral, free, and open (traditional Internet Service Providers, > > ISPs, base their business on the control of the infrastructure). In > > Community Networks, everybody keeps the ownership of what he/she has > > contributed. > > See earlier comment about providing a definition of traditional ISP. If there are other > defining characteristics, it could help to identify them up front. > > > > > Community Networks MAY also be called "Free Networks" or even > > "Network Commons". [FNF]. The majority of Community Networks > > accomplishes the definition of Free Network, included in the next > > subsection. > > > > 2.1.1. Free Networks > > > > A definition of Free Network (which MAY be the same as Community > > Network) is proposed by the Free Network Foundation (see > > http://thefnf.org) as: > > > > "A free network equitably grants the following freedoms to all: > > > > Freedom 0 - The freedom to communicate for any purpose, without > > discrimination, interference, or interception. > > > > Freedom 1 - The freedom to grow, improve, communicate across, and > > connect to the whole network. > > > > Freedom 2- The freedom to study, use, remix, and share any network > > communication mechanisms, in their most reusable forms." > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 6] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > The principles of Free, Open and Neutral Networks have also been > > summarized (see http://guifi.net/en/FONCC) this way: > > > > - You have the freedom to use the network for any purpose as long as > > you do not harm the operation of the network itself, the rights of > > other users, or the principles of neutrality that allow contents and > > services to flow without deliberate interference. > > > > - You have the right to understand the network, to know its > > components, and to spread knowledge of its mechanisms and principles. > > > > - You have the right to offer services and content to the network on > > your own terms. > > > > - You have the right to join the network, and the responsibility to > > extend this set of rights to anyone according to these same terms. > > > > 2.2. Wireless Internet Service Providers WISPs > > > > WISPs are commercially-operated wireless Internet networks that > > provide Internet and/or Voice Over Internet (VoIP) services. They > > are most common in areas not covered by incumbent telcos or ISPs. > > WISPs often use wireless point-to-point or point-to-multipoint in the > > unlicensed frequencies but licensed frequency use is common too > > especially in regions where unlicensed spectrum is either perceived > > as crowded or where unlicensed spectrum may have regulatory barriers > > impeding its use. > > > > Most WISPs are operated by local companies responding to a perceived > > market gap. There is a small but growing number of WISPs, such as > > AirJaldi [Airjaldi] in India that have expanded from local service > > into multiple locations. > > What I miss in this section is some text that talks about why a WISP is able to > succeed where an incumbent or traditional ISP is not. If WISPs are for-profit > enterprises, then why are they able to make a return, or why do incumbents choose > not to? > > > > > Since 2006, the deployment of cloud-managed WISPs has been possible > > I think a sentence defining 'cloud-managed' would be helpful here. > > > with companies like Meraki and later OpenMesh and others. Until > > recently, however, most of these services have been aimed at > > industrialised markets. Everylayer [Everylayer], launched in 2014, > > is the first cloud-managed WISP service aimed at emerging markets. > > > > 2.3. Shared infrastructure model > > > > These networks are owned by individuals but leased out to network > > operators who use them as a low cost medium to reach the underserved > > population. > > > > > > Can you give a more expansive example. Do you mean something like FON (I > guess not as that is described in the next section)? How is this different from an > (M)VNO? > > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 7] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > 2.4. Crowdshared approaches, led by the people and third party > > stakeholders > > > > These networks can be defined as a set of nodes whose owners share > > common interests (e.g. sharing connectivity; resources; peripherals) > > regardless of their physical location. The node location exhibits a > > space and time correlation which is the basis to establish a robust > > connectivity model over time. > > I couldn't really parse that last sentence. > > > > > These networks conform to the following approach: the home router > > creates two wireless networks: one of them is normally used by the > > owner, and the other one is public. A small fraction of the > > bandwidth is allocated to the public network, to be employed by any > > user of the service in the immediate area. Some examples are > > described in [PAWS] and [Sathiaseelan_c]. Other example is > > constituted by the networks created and managed by City Councils > > (e.g., [Heer]). > > > > In the same way, some companies [Fon] develop and sell Wi-Fi routers > > with a dual access: a Wi-Fi network for the user, and a shared one. > > A user community is created, and people can join the network in > > different ways: they can buy a router, so they share their connection > > and in turn they get access to all the routers associated to the > > community. Some users can even get some revenue every time another > > user connects to their Wi-Fi spot. Other users can just buy some > > passes in order to use the network. Some telecommunications > > operators can collaborate with the community, including in their > > routers the possibility of creating these two networks. > > > > A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is created for public traffic, so it > > is completely secure and separated from the owner's connection. The > > network capacity shared may employ a low priority, a less-than-best- > > effort or scavenger approach, so as not to harm the traffic of the > > owner of the connection [Sathiaseelan_a]. > > > > The elements involved in a crowd-shared network are summarised below: > > > > - Interest: a parameter capable of providing a measure (cost) of the > > attractiveness of a node towards a specific location, in a specific > > instance in time. > > > > - Resources: A physical or virtual element of a global system. For > > instance, bandwidth; energy; data; devices. > > > > - The owner: End users who sign up for the service and share their > > network capacity. As a counterpart, they can access another owners' > > home access for free. The owner can be an end user or an entity > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 8] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > (e.g. operator; virtual operator; municipality) that is to be made > > responsible for any actions concerning his/her device. > > > > - The user: a legal entity or an individual using or requesting a > > publicly available electronic communications' service for private or > > business purposes, without necessarily having subscribed to such > > service. > > > > - The Virtual Network Operator (VNO): An entity that acts in some > > aspects as a network coordinator. It may provide services such as > > initial authentication or registering, and eventually, trust > > relationship storage. A VNO is not an ISP given that it does not > > provide Internet access (e.g. infrastructure; naming). A VNO is > > neither an Application Service Provider (ASP) since it does not > > provide user services. Virtual Operators MAY also be stakeholders > > with socio-environmental objectives. They CAN be a local government, > > grass root user communities, charities, or even content operators, > > smart grid operators, etc. They are the ones who actually run the > > service. > > > > - Network operators, who have a financial incentive to lease out the > > unused capacity [Sathiaseelan_b] at lower cost to the VNOs. > > > > VNOs pay the sharers and the network operators, thus creating an > > incentive structure for all the actors: the end users get money for > > sharing their network, the network operators are paid by the VNOs, > > who in turn accomplish their socio-environmental role. > > > > 2.5. Testbeds for research purposes > > > > In some cases, the initiative to start the network is not from the > > community, but from a research entity (e.g. a university), with the > > aim of using it for research purposes [Samanta], [Bernardi]. > > This section is kind of amusing to me, given the origins of the Internet. Maybe it is > Comcast, BT, Telefonica et al. that are the 'Alternative Networks'? :) > > > > > 3. Scenarios where Alternative Networks are deployed > > > > Alternative Network deployments are present in every part of the > > world. Even in some high-income countries, these networks have been > > built as an alternative to commercial ones managed by traditional > > network operators. This section discusses the scenarios where > > Alternative Networks have been deployed. > > > > 3.1. Digital Divide and Alternative Networks > > > > There is no definition for what a developing country represents that > > has been recognized internationally, but the term is generally used > > to describe a nation with a low level of material well-being. In > > this sense, one of the most commonly used classification is the one > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 9] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > by the World Bank, who ranks countries according to their Gross > > National Income (GNI) per Capita: low income, middle income, and high > > income, being those falling within the low and middle income groups > > considered developing economies. Developing countries have also been > > defined as those which are in transition from traditional lifestyles > > towards the modern lifestyle which began in the Industrial > > Revolution. Additionally, the Human Development Index, which > > considers not only the GNI but also life expectancy and education, > > has been proposed by the United Nations to rank countries according > > to their well-being and not solely based on economic terms. These > > classifications are used to give strong signals to the international > > community about the need of special concessions in support of these > > countries, implying a correlation between development and increased > > well-being. > > > > However, at the beginning of the 90's the debates about how to > > quantify development in a country were shaken by the appearance of > > Internet and mobile phones, which many authors consider the beginning > > of the Information Society. With the beginning of this Digital > > Revolution, defining development based on Industrial Society concepts > > started to be challenged, and links between digital development and > > its impact on human development started to flourish. The following > > dimensions are considered to be meaningful when measuring the digital > > development state of a country: infrastructures (availability and > > affordability); ICT (Information and Communications Technology) > > sector (human capital and technological industry); digital literacy; > > legal and regulatory framework; and content and services. The lack > > or less extent of digital development in one or more of these > > dimensions is what has been referred as Digital Divide. This divide > > is a new vector of inequality which - as it happened during the > > Industrial Revolution - generates a lot of progress at the expense of > > creating a lot economic poverty and exclusion. The Digital Divide is > > considered to be a consequence of other socio-economic divides, > > while, at the same time, a reason for their rise. > > > > In this context, the so-called "developing countries", in order not > > to be left behind of this incipient digital revolution, motivated the > > World Summit of the Information Society which aimed at achieving "a > > people-centred, inclusive and development-oriented Information > > Society, where everyone can create, access, utilize and share > > information and knowledge, enabling individuals, communities and > > peoples to achieve their full potential in promoting their > > sustainable development and improving their quality of life" [WSIS], > > and called upon "governments, private sector, civil society and > > international organisations" to actively engage to accomplish it > > [WSIS]. > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 10] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > Most efforts from governments and international organizations focused > > initially on improving and extending the existing infrastructure in > > order not to leave their population behind. As an example, one of > > the goals of the Digital Agenda for Europe [DAE] is "to increase > > regular internet usage from 60% to 75% by 2015, and from 41% to 60% > > among disadvantaged people." > > > > Universal Access and Service plans have taken different forms in > > different countries over the years, with very uneven success rates, > > but in most cases inadequate to the scale of the problem. Given its > > incapacity to solve the problem, some governments included Universal > > Service and Access obligations to mobile network operators when > > liberalizing the telecommunications market. In combination with the > > overwhelming and unexpected uptake of mobile phones by poor people, > > this has mitigated the low access indicators existing in many > > developing countries at the beginning of the 90s [Rendon]. > > > > Although the contribution made by mobile network operators in > > decreasing the access gap is undeniable, their model presents some > > constraints that limit the development outcomes that increased > > connectivity promises to bring. Prices, tailored for the more > > affluent part of the population, remain unaffordable to many, who > > invest large percentages of their disposable income in > > communications. Additionally, the cost of prepaid packages, the only > > option available for the informal economies existing throughout > > developing countries, is high compared with the rate longer-term > > subscribers pay. > > > > The consolidation of many Alternative Networks (e.g. Community > > Networks) in high income countries sets a precedent for civil society > > members from the so-called developing countries to become more active > > in the search for alternatives to provide themselves with affordable > > access. Furthermore, Alternative Networks could contribute to other > > dimensions of the digital development like increased human capital > > and the creation of contents and services targeting the locality of > > each network. > > > > 3.2. Urban vs. rural areas > > > > The Digital Divide presented in the previous section is not only > > present between countries, but within them too. This is specially > > the case for rural inhabitants, which represents approximately 55% of > > the world's population, from which 78% inhabit in developing > > countries. Although it is impossible to generalize among them, there > > exist some common features that have determined the availability of > > ICT infrastructure in these regions. The disposable income of their > > dwellers is lower than those inhabiting urban areas, with many > > surviving on a subsistence economy. Many of them are located in > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 11] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > geographies difficult to access and exposed to extreme weather > > conditions. This has resulted in the almost complete lack of > > electrical infrastructure. This context, together with their low > > population density, discourages telecommunications operators to > > provide similar services to those provided to urban dwellers, since > > they do not deem them profitable. > > > > The cost of the wireless infrastructure required to set up a network, > > including powering it via solar energy, is within the range of > > availability if not of individuals at least of entire communities. > > The social capital existing in these areas can allow for Alternative > > Network set-ups where a reduced number of nodes may cover communities > > whose dwellers share the cost of the infrastructure and the gateway > > and access it via inexpensive wireless devices. Some examples are > > presented in [Pietrosemoli] and [Bernardi]. > > > > In this case, the lack of awareness and confidence of rural > > communities to embark themselves in such tasks can become major > > barriers to their deployment. Scarce technical skills in these > > regions have been also pointed as a challenge for their success, but > > the proliferation of urban Community Networks, where scarcity of > > spectrum, scale, and heterogeneity of devices pose tremendous > > challenges to their stability and the services they aim to provide, > > has fuelled the creation of robust low-cost low-consumption low- > > complexity off-the-shelf wireless devices which make much easier the > > deployment and maintenance of these alternative infrastructures in > > rural areas. > > > > 4. Technologies employed > > > > 4.1. Wired > > > > In many (developed or developing) countries it may happen that > > national service providers may decline to provide connectivity to > > tiny and isolated villages. So in some cases the villagers have > > created their own optical fiber networks. It is the case of > > Lowenstedt in Germany [Lowenstedt]. > > > > 4.2. Wireless > > > > Different wireless technologies [WNDW] can be employed in Alternative > > Network deployments. Below we summarise topics to be considered in > > such deployments: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 12] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > 4.2.1. Antennas > > > > Three kinds of antennas are suitable to be used in these networks: > > omnidirectional, directional and high gain antennas. > > > > For local access, omnidirectional antennas are the most useful, since > > they provide the same coverage in all directions of the plane in > > which they are located. Above and below this plane, the received > > signal will diminish, so the maximum benefits are obtained when the > > client is at approximately the same height as the Access Point. > > > > When using an omnidirectional antenna outdoors to provide > > connectivity to a large area, people often select high gain antennas > > located at the highest structure available to extend the coverage. > > In many cases this is counterproductive, since a high gain > > omnidirectional antenna will have a very narrow beamwidth in the > > vertical plane, meaning that clients that are below the plane of the > > antenna will receive a very weak signal (and by the reciprocity > > property of all antennas, the antenna will also receive a feeble > > signal from the client). A moderate gain omnidirectional of about 8 > > to 10 dBi is normally preferable. Higher gain omnidirectional > > antennas are only advisable when the farthest way client is roughly > > in the same plane. > > > > For indoor clients, omnidirectional antennas are generally fine, > > because the numerous reflections normally found in indoor > > environments negate the advantage of using directional antennas. > > > > For outdoor clients, directional antennas can be quite useful to > > extend coverage to an Access Point fitted with an omnidirectional > > one. > > > > When building point-to-point links, the highest gain antennas are the > > best choice, since their narrow beamwidth mitigates interference from > > other users and can provide the longest links [Flickenger], > > [Zennaro]. > > > > 24 to 34 dBi antennas are commercially available at both the > > unlicensed 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands, and even higher gain antennas can > > be found in the newer unlicensed bands at 17 GHz and 24 GHz. > > > > Despite the fact that the free space loss is directly proportional to > > the square of the frequency, it is normally advisable to use higher > > frequencies for point-to-point links when there is a clear line of > > sight, because it is normally easier to get higher gain antennas at 5 > > GHz. Deploying high gain antennas at both ends will more than > > compensate for the additional free space loss. Furthermore, higher > > frequencies can make do with lower altitude antenna placement since > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 13] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > the Fresnel ellipsoid (the volume around the optical line occuppied > > by radio waves, which should be free from obstacles), is inversely > > proportional to the square root of the frequency. > > > > On the contrary, lower frequencies offer advantages when the line of > > sight is blocked because they can leverage diffraction to reach the > > intended receiver. > > > > It is common to find dual radio Access Points, at two different > > frequency bands. One way of benefiting from this arrangement is to > > attach a directional antenna to the high frequency radio for > > connection to the backbone and an omnidirectional one to the lower > > frequency to provide local access. > > > > In the case of mesh networking, where the antenna should connect to > > several other nodes, it is better to use omnidirectional antennas. > > > > The same type of polarisation must be used at both ends of any radio > > link. For point-to-point links, some vendors use two radios > > operating at the same frequency but with orthogonal polarisations, > > thus doubling the achievable throughput, and also offering added > > protection to multipath and other transmission impairments. > > > > 4.2.2. Link length > > > > 4.2.2.1. Line-of-Sight > > > > For short distance transmission, there is no strict requirement of > > line of sight between the transmitter and the receiver, and multipath > > can guarantee communication despite the existence of obstacles in the > > direct path. > > > > For longer distances, the first requirement is the existence of an > > unobstructed line of sight between the transmitter and the receiver. > > For very long path the earth curvature is an obstacle that must be > > cleared, but the trajectory of the radio beam is not strictly a > > straight line due to the bending of the rays as a consequence of non- > > uniformities of the atmosphere. Most of the time this bending will > > mean that the radio horizon extends further than the optical horizon. > > > > Another factor to be considered is that the Fresnel zone (the volume > > around the optical line) must be unencumbered from obstacles for the > > maximum signal to be captured at the receiver. The size of the > > Fresnel ellipsoid grows with the distance between the end points and > > with the wavelength of the signal, which in turn is inversely > > proportional to the frequency. > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 14] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > For optimum signal reception the end points must be high enough to > > clear any obstacle in the path and leave extra "elbow room" for the > > Fresnel zone. This can be achieved by using suitable masts at either > > end, or by taking advantage of existing structures or hills. > > > > 4.2.2.2. Transmitted and Received Power > > > > Once a clear radio-electric line of sight (including the Fresnel zone > > clearance) is obtained, one must ascertain that the received power is > > well above the sensitivity of the receiver, by what is known as the > > "link margin". The greater the link margin, the more reliable the > > link. For mission critical applications 20 dB margin is suggested, > > but for non critical ones 10 dB might suffice. > > > > The sensitivity of the receiver decreases with the transmission > > speed, so more power is needed at greater transmission speeds. > > > > The received power is determined by the transmitted power, the gain > > of the transmitting and receiving antennas and the propagation loss. > > > > The propagation loss is the sum of the free space loss (proportional > > to the square of the the frequency and the square of the distance), > > plus additional factors like attenuation in the atmosphere by gases > > or meteorological effects (which are strongly frequency dependent), > > multipath and diffraction losses. > > > > Multipath is more pronounced in trajectories over water. If they > > cannot be avoided special countermeasures should be taken. > > > > In order to achieve a given link margin (also called "fade margin"), > > one can: > > > > a) Increase the output power.The maximum transmitted power is > > specified by each country's regulation, and for unlicensed > > frequencies is much lower than for licensed frequencies. > > > > b) Increase the antenna gain. There is no limit in the gain of the > > receiving antenna, but high gain antennas are bulkier, present more > > wind resistance and require sturdy mounts to comply with tighter > > alignment requirements. The transmitter antenna gain is also > > regulated and can be different for point-to-point as for point-to- > > multipoint links. Many countries impose a limit in the combination > > of transmitted power and antenna gain, EIRP (Equivalent Isotropically > > Irradiated Power) which can be different for point-to- point or > > point-to-multipoint links. > > > > c) Reduce the propagation loss, by using a more favorable frequency > > or a shorter path. > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 15] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > d) Use a more sensitive receiver. Receiver sensitivity can be > > improved by using better circuits, but it is ultimately limited by > > the thermal noise, which is proportional to temperature and > > bandwidth. One can increase the sensitivity by using a smaller > > receiving bandwidth, or by settling to lower throughput even in the > > same receiver bandwidth. This step is often done automatically in > > many protocols, in which the transmission speed can be reduced from > > 150 Mbit/s to 6 Mbit/s if the receiver power is not enough to sustain > > the maximum throughput. > > > > 4.2.2.3. Medium Access Protocol > > > > A completely different limiting factor is related to the medium > > access protocol. Wi-Fi was designed for short distance, and the > > transmitter expects the reception of an acknowledgment for each > > transmitted packet in a certain amount of time; if the waiting time > > is exceeded, the packet is retransmitted. This will significantly > > reduce the throughput at long distance, so for long distance > > applications it is better to use a different medium access technique, > > in which the receiver does not wait for an acknowledgement of the > > transited packet. This strategy of TDMA (Time Domain Multiple > > Access) has been adopted by many equipment vendors who offer > > proprietary protocols alongside the standard Wi-Fi in order to > > increase the throughput at longer distances. Low cost equipment > > using TDMA can offer high throughput at distances over 100 > > kilometers. > > > > 4.2.3. Layer 2 > > > > 4.2.3.1. 802.11 (Wi-Fi) > > > > Wireless standards ensure interoperability and usability to those who > > design, deploy and manage wireless networks. The standards used in > > the vast majority of Community Networks come from the IEEE Standard > > Association's IEEE 802 Working Group. > > > > The standard we are most interested in is 802.11 a/b/g/n, > > [IEEE.802-11A.1999], [IEEE.802-11B.1999], [IEEE.802-11G.2003], > > [IEEE.802-11N.2009] as it defines the protocol for Wireless LAN. > > Different 802.11 amendments have been released, as shown in the table > > below, also including their frequencies and approximate ranges. > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 16] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > |802.11| Release | Freq |BWdth | Data Rate per | Approx range (m) | > > |prot | date | (GHz)|(MHz) |stream (Mbit/s) | indoor | outdoor | > > +------+---------+------+------+----------------+--------+----------+ > > | a |Sep 1999 | 5 | 20 | 6,9,12, 18, 24,| 35 | 120 | > > | | | | | 36, 48, 54 | | | > > | b |Sep 1999 | 2.4 | 20 | 1, 2, 5.5, 11 | 35 | 140 | > > | g |Jun 2003 | 2.4 | 20 | 6,9,12, 18, 24,| 38 | 140 | > > | | | | | 36, 48, 54 | | | > > | n |Oct 2009 | 2.4/5| 20 | 7.2, 14.4, 21.7| 70 | 250 | > > | | | | | 28.9, 43.3, | | | > > | | | | | 57.8, 65, 72.2 | | | > > | n |Oct 2009 | 2.4/5| 40 | 15, 30, 45, 60,| 70 | 250 | > > | | | | | 90, 120, | | | > > | | | | | 135, 150 | | | > > | ac |Nov 2011 | 5 | 20 | Up to 87.6 | | | > > | ac |Nov 2011 | 5 | 40 | Up to 200 | | | > > | ac |Nov 2011 | 5 | 80 | Up to 433.3 | | | > > | ac |Nov 2011 | 5 | 160 | Up to 866.7 | | | > > > > In 2012 IEEE issued the 802.11-2012 Standard that consolidates all > > the previous amendments. The document is freely downloadable from > > IEEE Standards [IEEE]. > > > > 4.2.3.1.1. Deployment planning for 802.11 wireless networks > > > > Before packets can be forwarded and routed to the Internet, layers > > one (the physical) and two (the data link) need to be connected. > > Without link local connectivity, network nodes cannot talk to each > > other and route packets. > > > > To provide physical connectivity, wireless network devices MUST > > operate in the same part of the radio spectrum. This means that > > 802.11a radios will talk to 802.11a radios at around 5 GHz, and > > 802.11b/g radios will talk to other 802.11b/g radios at around 2.4 > > GHz. But an 802.11a device cannot interoperate with an 802.11b/g > > device, since they use completely different parts of the > > electromagnetic spectrum. More specifically, wireless interfaces > > must agree on a common channel. If one 802.11b radio card is set to > > channel 2 while another is set to channel 11, then the radios cannot > > communicate with each other. > > > > When two wireless interfaces are configured to use the same protocol > > on the same radio channel, then they are ready to negotiate data link > > layer connectivity. Each 802.11a/b/g device can operate in one of > > four possible modes: > > > > 1. Master mode (also called AP or infrastructure mode) is used to > > create a service that looks like a traditional Access Point. The > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 17] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > wireless interface creates a network with a specified name (called > > the SSID, Service Set IDentifier) and channel, and offers network > > services on it. While in master mode, wireless interfaces manage all > > communications related to the network (authenticating wireless > > clients, handling channel contention, repeating packets, etc.) > > Wireless interfaces in master mode can only communicate with > > interfaces that are associated with them in managed mode. > > > > 2. Managed mode is sometimes also referred to as client mode. > > Wireless interfaces in managed mode will join a network created by a > > master, and will automatically change their channel to match it. > > They then present any necessary credentials to the master, and if > > those credentials are accepted, they are associated with the master. > > Managed mode interfaces do not communicate with each other directly, > > and only communicate with an associated master. > > > > 3. Ad-hoc mode creates a multipoint-to-multipoint network where > > there is no single master node or AP. In ad-hoc mode, each wireless > > interface communicates directly with its neighbours. Nodes must be > > in range of each other to communicate, and must agree on a network > > name and channel. Ad-hoc mode is often also called Mesh Networking. > > > > 4. Monitor mode is used by some tools (such as Kismet) to passively > > listen to all radio traffic on a given channel. When in monitor > > mode, wireless interfaces transmit no data. This is useful for > > analysing problems on a wireless link or observing spectrum usage in > > the local area. Monitor mode is not used for normal communications. > > > > When implementing a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint link, one > > radio will typically operate in master mode, while the other(s) > > operate in managed mode. In a multipoint-to-multipoint mesh, the > > radios all operate in ad-hoc mode so that they can communicate with > > each other directly. Managed mode clients cannot communicate with > > each other directly, so a high repeater site is required in master or > > ad-hoc mode. Ad-hoc is more flexible but has a number of performance > > issues as compared to using the master / managed modes. > > > > 4.2.3.2. GSM > > > > GSM has also been used in Alternative Networks as Layer 2 option, as > > explained in [Mexican]. > > > > 4.2.3.3. Dynamic Spectrum > > > > Some Alternative Networks make use of TV White Spaces - a set of UHF > > and VHF television frequencies that can be utilized by secondary > > users in locations where it is unused by licensed primary users such > > as television broadcasters. Equipment that makes use of TV White > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 18] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > Spaces is required to detect the presence of existing unused TV > > channels by means of a spectrum database and/or spectrum sensing in > > order to ensure that no harmful interference is caused to primary > > users. In order to smartly allocate interference-free channels to > > the devices, cognitive radios are used which are able to modify their > > frequency, power and modulation techniques to meet the strict > > operating conditions required for secondary users. > > > > The use of the term "White Spaces" is often used to describe "TV > > White Spaces" as the VHF and UHF television frequencies were the > > first to be exploited on a secondary use basis. There are two > > dominant standards for TV white space communication: (i) the 802.11af > > standard [IEEE.802-11AF.2013] - an adaptation of the 802.11 standard > > for TV white space bands and (ii) the IEEE 802.22 standard > > [IEEE.802-22.2011] for long-range rural communication. > > > > 4.2.3.3.1. 802.11af > > > > 802.11af [IEEE.802-11AF.2013] is a modified version of the 802.11 > > standard operating in TV White Space bands using Cognitive Radios to > > avoid interference with primary users. The standard is often > > referred to as White-Fi or Super WiFi and was approved in February > > 2014. 802.11af contains much of the advances of all the 802.11 > > standards including recent advances in 802.11ac such as up to four > > bonded channels, four spatial streams and very high rate 256-QAM > > modulation but with improved in-building penetration and outdoor > > coverage. The maximum data rate achievable is 426.7 Mbps for > > countries with 6/7 MHz channels and 568.9 Mbps for countries with 8 > > MHz channels. Coverage is typically limited to 1km although longer > > range at lower throughput and using high gain antennas will be > > possible. > > > > Devices are designated as enabling stations (access points) or > > dependent stations (clients). Enabling stations are authorized to > > control the operation of a dependent station and securely access a > > geolocation database. Once the enabling station has received a list > > of available white space channels it can announce a chosen channel to > > the dependent stations for them to communicate with the enabling > > station. 802.11af also makes use of a registered location server - a > > local database that organizes the geographic location and operating > > parameters of all enabling stations. > > > > 4.2.3.3.2. 802.22 > > > > 802.22 [IEEE.802-22.2011] is a standard developed specifically for > > long range rural communications in TV white space frequencies and > > first approved in July 2011. The standard is similar to the 802.16 > > (WiMax) [IEEE.802-16.2008] standard with an added cognitive radio > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 19] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > ability. The maximum throughput of 802.22 is 22.6 Mbps for a single > > 8 MHz channel using 64-QAM modulation. The achievable range using > > the default MAC scheme is 30 km, however 100 km is possible with > > special scheduling techniques. The MAC of 802.22 is specifically > > customized for long distances - for example, slots in a frame > > destined for more distant CPEs are sent before slots destined for > > nearby CPEs. > > > > Base stations are required to have a GPS and a connection to the > > Internet in order to query a geolocation spectrum database. Once the > > base station receives the allowed TV channels, it communicates a > > preferred operating white space TV channel with the Client Premises > > Equipment (CPE) devices. The standard also has a co-existence > > mechanism that uses beacons to make other 802.22 base stations aware > > of the presence of a base station that is not part of the same > > network. > > > > 5. Network and architecture issues > > > > 5.1. Layer 3 > > > > 5.1.1. IP addressing > > > > Most known Alternative Networks started in or around the year 2000. > > IPv6 was fully specified by then, but almost all Alternative Networks > > still use IPv4. A survey [Avonts] indicated that IPv6 rollout > > presents a challenge to Community Networks. > > > > Most Community Networks use private IPv4 address ranges, as defined > > by RFC 1918 [RFC1918]. The motivation for this was the lower cost > > and the simplified IP allocation because of the large available > > address ranges. > > > > 5.1.2. Routing protocols > > > > Alternative Networks are composed of possibly different layer 2 > > devices, resulting in a mesh of nodes. Connection between different > > nodes is not guaranteed and the link stability can vary strongly over > > time. To tackle this, some Alternative Networks use mesh network > > routing protocols while other networks use more traditional routing > > protocols. Some networks operate multiple routing protocols in > > parallel. For example, they use a mesh protocol inside different > > islands and use traditional routing protocols to connect islands. > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 20] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > 5.1.2.1. Traditional routing protocols > > > > The BGP protocol, as defined by RFC 4271 [RFC4271] is used by a > > number of Community Networks, because of its well-studied behavior > > and scalability. > > > > For similar reasons, smaller networks opt to run the OSPF protocol, > > as defined by RFC 2328 [RFC2328]. > > > > 5.1.2.2. Mesh routing protocols > > > > A large number of Alternative Networks use the OLSR routing protocol > > as defined in RFC 3626 [RFC3626]. The pro-active link state routing > > protocol is a good match with Alternative Networks because it has > > good performance in mesh networks where nodes have multiple > > interfaces. > > > > The Better Approach To Mobile Adhoc Networking (BATMAN) [Abolhasan] > > protocol was developed by members of the Freifunk community. The > > protocol handles all routing at layer 2, creating one bridged > > network. > > > > Parallel to BGP, some networks also run the BMX6 protocol [Neumann]. > > This is an advanced version of the BATMAN protocol which is based on > > IPv6 and tries to exploit the social structure of Alternative > > Networks. > > > > 5.2. Upper layers > > > > From crowdshared perspective, and considering just regular TCP > > connections during the critical sharing time, the Access Point > > offering the service is likely to be the bottleneck of the > > connection. This is the main concern of sharers, having several > > implications. There should be an adequate Active Queue Management > > (AQM) mechanism that implements a Less than Best Effort (LBE) policy > > for the user and protects the sharer. Achieving LBE behaviour > > requires the appropriate tuning of the well known mechanisms such as > > ECN, or RED, or others more recent AQM mechanisms such as CoDel and > > PIE that aid on keeping low latency RFC 6297 [RFC6297]. > > > > The user traffic should not interfere with the sharer's traffic. > > However, other bottlenecks besides client's access bottleneck may not > > be controlled by the previously mentioned protocols. Therefore, > > recently proposed transport protocols like LEDBAT [Ros], [Komnios] > > with the purpose of transporting scavenger traffic may be a solution. > > LEDBAT requires the cooperation of both the client and the server to > > achieve certain target delay, therefore controlling the impact of the > > user along all the path. > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 21] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > There are applications that manage aspects of the network from the > > sharer side and from the client side. From sharer's side, there are > > applications to centralise the management of the APs conforming the > > network that have been recently proposed by means of SDN > > [Sathiaseelan_a], [Suresh]. There are also other proposals such as > > Wi2Me [Lampropulos] that manage the connection to several Community > > Networks from the client's side. These applications have shown to > > improve the client performance compared to a single-Community Network > > client. > > > > On the other hand, transport protocols inside a multiple hop wireless > > mesh network are likely to suffer performance degradation for > > multiple reasons, e.g., hidden terminal problem, unnecessary delays > > on the TCP ACK clocking that decrease the throughout or route > > changing [Hanbali]. There are some options for network > > configuration. The implementation of an easy-to-adopt solution for > > TCP over mesh networks may be implemented from two different > > perspectives. One way is to use a TCP-proxy to transparently deal > > with the different impairments (RFC 3135 [RFC3135]). Another way is > > to adopt end-to-end solutions for monitoring the connection delay so > > that the receiver adapts the TCP reception window (rwnd) > > [Castignani_c]. Similarly, the ACK Congestion Control (ACKCC) > > mechanism RFC 5690 [RFC5690] could deal with TCP-ACK clocking > > impairments due to inappropriate delay on ACK packets. ACKCC > > compensates in an end-to-end fashion the throughput degradation due > > to the effect of media contention as well as the unfairness > > experienced by multiple uplink TCP flows in a congested Wi-Fi access. > > > > 5.2.1. Services provided by Alternative Networks > > > > This section provides an overview of the services between hosts > > inside the network. They can be divided into Intranet services, > > connecting hosts between them, and Internet services, connecting to > > nodes outside the network. > > > > 5.2.1.1. Intranet services > > > > Intranet services can include, but are not limited to: > > > > - VoIP (e.g. with SIP) > > > > - Remote desktop (e.g. using my home computer and my Internet > > connection when I am on holidays in a village). > > > > - FTP file sharing (e.g. distribution of Linux software). > > > > - P2P file sharing. > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 22] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > - Public video cameras. > > > > - DNS. > > > > - Online games servers. > > > > - Jabber instant messaging. > > > > - IRC chat. > > > > - Weather stations. > > > > - NTP. > > > > - Network monitoring. > > > > - Videoconferencing / streaming. > > > > - Radio streaming. > > > > 5.2.1.2. Access to the Internet > > > > 5.2.1.2.1. Web browsing proxies > > > > A number of federated proxies MAY provide web browsing service for > > the users. Other services (file sharing, skype, etc.) are not > > usually allowed in many Alternative Networks due to bandwidth > > limitations. > > > > 5.2.1.2.2. Use of VPNs > > > > Some "micro-ISPs" may use the network as a backhaul for providing > > Internet access, setting up VPNs from the client to a machine with > > Internet access. > > > > 5.3. Topology > > > > Alternative Networks follow different topology patterns, as studied > > in [Vega]. > > > > Regularly rural areas in these networks are connected through long- > > distance links (the so-called community mesh approach) which in turn > > convey the Internet connection to relevant organisations or > > institutions. In contrast, in urban areas, users tend to share and > > require mobile access. Since these areas are also likely to be > > covered by commercial ISPs, the provision of wireless access by > > Virtual Operators like [Fon] may constitute a way to extend the user > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 23] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > capacity (or gain connection) to the network. Other proposals like > > Virtual Public Networks [Sathiaseelan_a] can also extend the service. > > > > As in the case of main Internet Service Providers in France, > > Community Networks for urban areas are conceived as a set of APs > > sharing a common SSID among the clients favouring the nomadic access. > > For users in France, ISPs promise to cause a little impact on their > > service agreement when the shared network service is activated on > > clients' APs. Nowadays, millions of APs are deployed around the > > country performing services of nomadism and 3G offloading, however as > > some studies demonstrate, at walking speed, there is a fair chance of > > performing file transfers [Castignani_a], [Castignani_b]. Scenarios > > studied in France and Luxembourg show that the density of APs in > > urban areas (mainly in downtown and residential areas) is quite big > > and from different ISPs. Moreover, performed studies reveal that > > aggregating available networks can be beneficial to the client by > > using an application that manages the best connection among the > > different networks. For improving the scanning process (or topology > > recognition), which consumes the 90% of the connection/reconnection > > process to the Community Network, the client may implement several > > techniques for selecting the best AP [Castignani_c]. > > > > 6. Acknowledgements > > > > This work has been partially funded by the CONFINE European > > Commission Project (FP7 - 288535). > > > > The editor and the authors of this document wish to thank the > > following individuals who have participated in the drafting, review, > > and discussion of this memo: > > > > Paul M. Aoki, Roger Baig, Jaume Barcelo, Steven G. Huter, Rohan > > Mahy, Rute Sofia, Dirk Trossen. > > > > A special thanks to the GAIA Working Group chairs Matt Ford and > > s/Matt/Mat/ > > > Arjuna Sathiaseelan for their support and guidance. > > > > 7. Contributing Authors > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 24] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > Ioannis Komnios > > Democritus University of Thrace > > Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering > > Kimmeria University Campus > > Xanthi 67100 > > Greece > > > > Phone: +306945406585 > > Email: ikomnios@ee.duth.gr > > > > > > Steve Song > > Village Telco Limited > > > > > > Halifax > > Canada > > > > Phone: > > Email: stevesong@nsrc.org > > > > > > David Lloyd Johnson > > Meraka, CSIR > > 15 Lower Hope St > > Rosebank 7700 > > South Africa > > > > Phone: +27 (0)21 658 2740 > > Email: djohnson@csir.co.za > > > > 8. IANA Considerations > > > > This memo includes no request to IANA. > > > > 9. Security Considerations > > > > No security issues have been identified for this document. > > > > 10. References > > > > 10.1. Normative References > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 25] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > [IEEE.802-11A.1999] > > "Information technology - Telecommunications and > > information exchange between systems - Local and > > metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part > > 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical > > Layer (PHY) specifications - High-speed Physical Layer in > > the 5 GHZ Band", IEEE Standard 802.11a, Sept 1999, > > > download/802.11a-1999.pdf>. > > > > [IEEE.802-11AF.2013] > > "Information technology - Telecommunications and > > information exchange between systems - Local and > > metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part > > 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical > > Layer (PHY) specifications - Amendment 5: Television White > > Spaces (TVWS) Operation", IEEE Standard 802.11af, Oct > > 2009, > download/802.11af-2013.pdf>. > > > > [IEEE.802-11B.1999] > > "Information technology - Telecommunications and > > information exchange between systems - Local and > > metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part > > 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical > > Layer (PHY) specifications - Higher-Speed Physical Layer > > Extension in the 2.4 GHz Band", IEEE Standard 802.11b, > > Sept 1999, > download/802.11b-1999.pdf>. > > > > [IEEE.802-11G.2003] > > "Information technology - Telecommunications and > > information exchange between systems - Local and > > metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part > > 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical > > Layer (PHY) specifications - Amendment 4: Further Higher > > Data Rate Extension in the 2.4 GHz Band", IEEE Standard > > 802.11g, Jun 2003, > download/802.11g-2003.pdf>. > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 26] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > [IEEE.802-11N.2009] > > "Information technology - Telecommunications and > > information exchange between systems - Local and > > metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part > > 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical > > Layer (PHY) specifications - Amendment 5: Enhancements for > > Higher Throughput", IEEE Standard 802.11n, Oct 2009, > > > download/802.11n-2009.pdf>. > > > > [IEEE.802-16.2008] > > "Information technology - Telecommunications and > > information exchange between systems - Broadband wireless > > metropolitan area networks (MANs) - IEEE Standard for Air > > Interface for Broadband Wireless Access Systems", IE > > EE > > Standard 802.16, Jun 2008, > > > download/802.16-2012.pdf>. > > > > [IEEE.802-22.2011] > > "Information technology - Telecommunications and > > information exchange between systems - Local and > > metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part > > 22: Cognitive Wireless RAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and > > Physical Layer (PHY) specifications: Policies and > > procedures for operation in the TV Bands", IEEE Standard > > 802.22, Jul 2011, > download/802.11af-2013.pdf>. > > > > [RFC1918] Rekhter, Y., Moskowitz, R., Karrenberg, D., Groot, G., and > > E. Lear, "Address Allocation for Private Internets", BCP > > 5, RFC 1918, February 1996. > > > > [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate > > Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. > > > > [RFC2328] Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", STD 54, RFC 2328, April 1998. > > > > [RFC3135] Border, J., Kojo, M., Griner, J., Montenegro, G., and Z. > > Shelby, "Performance Enhancing Proxies Intended to > > Mitigate Link-Related Degradations", RFC 3135, June 2001. > > > > [RFC3626] Clausen, T. and P. Jacquet, "Optimized Link State Routing > > Protocol (OLSR)", RFC 3626, October 2003. > > > > [RFC4271] Rekhter, Y., Li, T., and S. Hares, "A Border Gateway > > Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", RFC 4271, January 2006. > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 27] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > [RFC5690] Floyd, S., Arcia, A., Ros, D., and J. Iyengar, "Adding > > Acknowledgement Congestion Control to TCP", RFC 5690, > > February 2010. > > > > [RFC6297] Welzl, M. and D. Ros, "A Survey of Lower-than-Best-Effort > > Transport Protocols", RFC 6297, June 2011. > > > > 10.2. Informative References > > > > [Abolhasan] > > Abolhasan, M., Hagelstein, B., and J. Wang, "Real-world > > performance of current proactive multi-hop mesh > > protocols", In Communications, 2009. APCC 2009. 15th Asia- > > Pacific Conference on (pp. 44-47). IEEE. , 2009. > > > > [Airjaldi] > > Rural Broadband (RBB) Pvt. Ltd., Airjaldi., "Airjaldi > > service", Airjaldi web page, www.airjaldi.net , 2015. > > > > [Avonts] Avonts, J., Braem, B., and C. Blondia, "A Questionnaire > > based Examination of Community Networks", Proceedings > > Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and > > Communications (WiMob), 2013 IEEE 8th International > > Conference on (pp. 8-15) , 2013. > > > > [Bernardi] > > Bernardi, B., Buneman, P., and M. Marina, "Tegola tiered > > mesh network testbed in rural Scotland", Proceedings of > > the 2008 ACM workshop on Wireless networks and systems for > > developing regions (WiNS-DR '08). ACM, New York, NY, USA, > > 9-16 , 2008. > > > > [Braem] Braem, B., Baig Vinas, R., Kaplan, A., Neumann, A., Vilata > > i Balaguer, I., Tatum, B., Matson, M., Blondia, C., Barz, > > C., Rogge, H., Freitag, F., Navarro, L., Bonicioli, J., > > Papathanasiou, S., and P. Escrich, "A case for research > > with and on community networks", ACM SIGCOMM Computer > > Communication Review vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 68-73, 2013. > > > > [Castignani_a] > > Castignani, G., Loiseau, L., and N. Montavont, "An > > Evaluation of IEEE 802.11 Community Networks Deployments", > > Information Networking (ICOIN), 2011 International > > Conference on , vol., no., pp.498,503, 26-28 , 2011. > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 28] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > [Castignani_b] > > Castignani, G., Monetti, J., Montavont, N., Arcia-Moret, > > A., Frank, R., and T. Engel, "A Study of Urban IEEE 802.11 > > Hotspot Networks: Towards a Community Access Network", > > Wireless Days (WD), 2013 IFIP , pp.1,8, 13-15 , 2013. > > > > [Castignani_c] > > Castignani, G., Arcia-Moret, A., and N. Montavont, "A > > study of the discovery process in 802.11 networks", > > SIGMOBILE Mob. Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 15, no. 1, p. 25 > > , 2011. > > > > [DAE] European Commission, EC., "A Digital Agenda for Europe", > > Communication from the Commission of 19 May 2010 to the > > European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic > > and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - A > > Digital Agenda for Europe , 2010. > > > > [Everylayer] > > former Volo Broadband, Everylayer., "Everylayer", > > Everylayer web page, http://www.everylayer.com/ , 2015. > > > > [FNF] The Free Network Foundation, FNF., "The Free Network > > Foundation", The Free Network Foundation web page, > > https://thefnf.org/ , 2014. > > > > [Flickenger] > > Flickenger, R., Okay, S., Pietrosemoli, E., Zennaro, M., > > and C. Fonda, "Very Long Distance Wi-Fi Networks", NSDR > > 2008, The Second ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Networked Systems > > for Developing Regions. USA, 2008 , 2008. > > > > [Fon] Fon Wireless Limited, Fon., "What is Fon", Fon web page, > > https://corp.fon.com/en , 2014. > > > > [Hanbali] Hanbali, A., Altman, E., and P. Nain, "A Survey of TCP > > over Ad Hoc Networks", IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. > > 7, pp. 22-36 , 2005. > > > > [Heer] Heer, T., Hummen, R., Viol, N., Wirtz, H., Gotz, S., and > > K. Wehrle, "Collaborative municipal Wi-Fi networks- > > challenges and opportunities", Pervasive Computing and > > Communications Workshops (PERCOM Workshops), 2010 8th IEEE > > International Conference on (pp. 588-593). IEEE. , 2010. > > > > [IEEE] Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, IEEE, > > "IEEE Standards association", 2012. > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 29] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > [Komnios] Komnios, I., Sathiaseelan, A., and J. Crowcroft, "LEDBAT > > performance in subpacket regimes", IEEE/IFIP WONS, > > Austria, April 2014 , 2014. > > > > [Lampropulos] > > Lampropulos, A., Castignani, G., Blanc, A., and N. > > Montavont, "Wi2Me: A Mobile Sensing Platform for Wireless > > Heterogeneous Networks", 32nd International Conference on > > Distributed Computing Systems Workshops (ICDCS Workshops), > > 2012, pp. 108-113 , 2012. > > > > [Lowenstedt] > > Huggler, J., "Lowenstedt Villagers Built Own Fiber Optic > > Network", The Telegraph, 03 Jun 2014, available at > > http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/ > > germany/10871150/ > > German-villagers-set-up-their-own-broadband-network.html , > > 2014. > > > > [Mexican] Varma, S., "Lowenstedt Villagers Built Own Fiber Optic > > Network", The Times of India, 27 Aug 2013, available at > > http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/rest-of-world/ > > Ignored-by-big-companies-Mexican-village-creates-its-own- > > mobile-service/articleshow/22094736.cms , 2013. > > > > [Neumann] Neumann, A., Lopez, E., and L. Navarro, "An evaluation of > > bmx6 for community wireless networks", In Wireless and > > Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob), > > 2012 IEEE 8th International Conference on (pp. 651-658). > > IEEE. , 2012. > > > > [PAWS] Sathiaseelan, A., Crowcroft, J., Goulden, M., > > Greiffenhagen, C., Mortier, R., Fairhurst, G., and D. > > McAuley, "Public Access WiFi Service (PAWS)", Digital > > Economy All Hands Meeting, Aberdeen , Oct 2012. > > > > [Pietrosemoli] > > Pietrosemoli, E., Zennaro, M., and C. Fonda, "Low cost > > carrier independent telecommunications infrastructure", In > > proc. 4th Global Information Infrastructure and Networking > > Symposium, Choroni, Venezuela , 2012. > > > > [Rendon] Rendon, A., Ludena, P., and A. Martinez Fernandez, > > "Tecnologias de la Informacion y las Comunicaciones para > > zonas rurales Aplicacion a la atencion de salud en paises > > en desarrollo", CYTED. Programa Iberoamericano de Ciencia > > y Tecnologia para el Desarrollo , 2011. > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 30] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > [Ros] Ros, D. and M. Welzl, "Assessing LEDBAT's Delay Impact", > > Communications Letters, IEEE , vol.17, no.5, pp.1044,1047, > > May 2013 , 2013. > > > > [Samanta] Samanta, V., Knowles, C., Wagmister, J., and D. Estrin, > > "Metropolitan Wi-Fi Research Network at the Los Angeles > > State Historic Park", The Journal of Community > > Informatics, North America, 4 , May 2008. > > > > [Sathiaseelan_a] > > Sathiaseelan, A., Rotsos, C., Sriram, C., Trossen, D., > > Papadimitriou, P., and J. Crowcroft, "Virtual Public > > Networks", In Software Defined Networks (EWSDN), 2013 > > Second European Workshop on (pp. 1-6). IEEE. , 2013. > > > > [Sathiaseelan_b] > > Sathiaseelan, A. and J. Crowcroft, "LCD-Net: Lowest Cost > > Denominator Networking", ACM SIGCOMM Computer > > Communication Review , Apr 2013. > > > > [Sathiaseelan_c] > > Sathiaseelan, A., Mortier, R., Goulden, M., Greiffenhagen, > > C., Radenkovic, M., Crowcroft, J., and D. McAuley, "A > > Feasibility Study of an In-the-Wild Experimental Public > > Access WiFi Network", ACM DEV 5, Proceedings of the Fifth > > ACM Symposium on Computing for Development, San Jose , Dec > > 2014 pp 33-42, 2014. > > > > [Suresh] Suresh, L., Schulz-Zander, J., Merz, R., Feldmann, A., and > > T. Vazao, "Towards Programmable Enterprise WLANs with > > ODIN", In Proceedings of the first workshop on Hot topics > > in software defined networks (HotSDN '12). ACM, New York, > > NY, USA, 115-120 , 2012. > > > > [Vega] Vega, D., Cerda-Alabern, L., Navarro, L., and R. Meseguer, > > "Topology patterns of a community network: Guifi. net.", > > Proceedings Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and > > Communications (WiMob), 2012 IEEE 8th International > > Conference on (pp. 612-619) , 2012. > > > > [WNDW] Wireless Networking in the Developing World/Core > > Contributors, "Wireless Networking in the Developing > > World, 3rd Edition", The WNDW Project, available at > > wndw.net , 2013. > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 31] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > [WSIS] International Telecommunications Union, ITU, "Declaration > > of Principles. Building the Information Society: A global > > challenge in the new millenium", World Summit on the > > Information Society, 2003, at http://www.itu.int/wsis, > > accessed 12 January 2004. , Dec 2013. > > > > [Zennaro] Zennaro, M., Fonda, C., Pietrosemoli, E., Muyepa, A., > > Okay, S., Flickenger, R., and S. Radicella, "On a long > > wireless link for rural telemedicine in Malawi", 6th > > International Conference on Open Access, Lilongwe, Malawi > > , Nov 2008. > > > > Authors' Addresses > > > > Jose Saldana (editor) > > University of Zaragoza > > Dpt. IEC Ada Byron Building > > Zaragoza 50018 > > Spain > > > > Phone: +34 976 762 698 > > Email: jsaldana@unizar.es > > > > > > Andres Arcia-Moret > > Universidad de Los Andes > > Facultad de Ingenieria. Sector La Hechicera > > Merida 5101 > > Venezuela > > > > Phone: +58 274 2402811 > > Email: andres.arcia@ula.ve > > > > > > Bart Braem > > iMinds > > Gaston Crommenlaan 8 (bus 102) > > Gent 9050 > > Belgium > > > > Phone: +32 3 265 38 64 > > Email: bart.braem@iminds.be > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 32] > > Internet-Draft Alternative Network Deployments January 2015 > > > > > > Leandro Navarro > > U. Politecnica Catalunya > > Jordi Girona, 1-3, D6 > > Barcelona 08034 > > Spain > > > > Phone: +34 934016807 > > Email: leandro@ac.upc.edu > > > > > > Ermanno Pietrosemoli > > ICTP > > Via Beirut 7 > > Trieste 34151 > > Italy > > > > Phone: +39 040 2240 471 > > Email: ermanno@ictp.it > > > > > > Carlos Rey-Moreno > > University of the Western Cape > > Robert Sobukwe road > > Bellville 7535 > > South Africa > > > > Phone: 0027219592562 > > Email: crey-moreno@uwc.ac.za > > > > > > Arjuna Sathiaseelan > > University of Cambridge > > 15 JJ Thomson Avenue > > Cambridge CB30FD > > United Kingdom > > > > Phone: +44 (0)1223 763781 > > Email: arjuna.sathiaseelan@cl.cam.ac.uk > > > > > > Marco Zennaro > > Abdus Salam ICTP > > Strada Costiera 11 > > Trieste 34100 > > Italy > > > > Phone: +39 040 2240 406 > > Email: mzennaro@ictp.it > > > > > > > > Saldana, et al. Expires July 25, 2015 [Page 33] > > Mat ------=_NextPart_000_0001_01D04485.3B93B760 Content-Type: text/html; charset="us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

Hi all,

 

Mat has sent this = suggestion:

 

> A general observation: I find the = taxonomical aspect a bit lacking at present. I = would

> like to have a sharper = identification of the characteristics of identified = alternative

> network types that = distinguishes them. Is it the commercial model? Is it = the

> centralisation or decentralisation of network management? The = descriptions are fine

> as far as they go, = but if there's something unique about the different types = that

> clearly distinguishes them it = would help to call that out better. Maybe a matrix of = the

> various identified types of = network and some of the important characteristics = would

> be = appropriate.

 

This is the current classification = (section 2):

 

     2.1.  Community Networks =

       2.1.1.  Free Networks =

     2.2.  Wireless Internet Service = Providers WISPs

     2.3.  Shared infrastructure model =

     2.4.  Crowdshared approaches, led by the people and = third party stakeholders  =

     2.5.  Testbeds for research = purposes

 

Mat, are you suggesting to include a = table like this?:

 

       &nbs= p;     | Commercial model | centralization | = technologies | typical   = |

       &nbs= p;     |       &nbs= p;          |       &nbs= p;        |       &nbs= p;      | scenarios = |

       &nbs= p;     = +------------------+----------------+--------------+-----------+

CNs       &nbs= p;  |       &nbs= p;          |       &nbs= p;        |       &nbs= p;      |       &nbs= p;   |

WISPx        = |       &nbs= p;          |       &nbs= p;        |       &nbs= p;      |       &nbs= p;   |

Shared inf   = |       &nbs= p;          |       &nbs= p;        |       &nbs= p;      |       &nbs= p;   |

Crowdshared  = |       &nbs= p;          |       &nbs= p;        |       &nbs= p;      |       &nbs= p;   |

Testbeds     |       &nbs= p;          |       &nbs= p;        |       &nbs= p;      |       &nbs= p;   |

 

 

Which would be the titles of the = columns? Are these ones enough?

 

Comments and ideas will be = welcome.

 

 

Thanks,

 

Jose=

 

> -----Mensaje = original-----

> De: Matthew Ford = [mailto:ford@isoc.org]

> Enviado el: viernes, 06 de febrero de = 2015 12:57

> Para: Jose Saldana

> CC: = gaia@irtf.org

> Asunto: Re: [gaia] New Version = Notification for draft-manyfolks-gaia-community-

> networks-02.txt

>

> Hi = Jose,

>

> = > On 21 Jan 2015, at 17:21, Jose Saldana <jsaldana= @unizar.es> wrote:

> = >

> > Hi all,

> >

> > We = have just updated (and uploaded) a new version of the "Manyfolks = draft":

> Alternative Network = Deployments. Taxonomy and characterization.

> >

> > = URL:       &nbs= p;    http://w= ww.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-manyfolks-gaia-community-

> = networks-02.txt

> >

>

> 8< snip = >8

>

> = >

> > If you want to have a look to = it and send your comments, it would be fine.

> >

>

> Sure!

>

> A general observation: I find the taxonomical = aspect a bit lacking at present. I would

> = like to have a sharper identification of the characteristics of = identified alternative

> network types = that distinguishes them. Is it the commercial model? Is it the

> centralisation or decentralisation of network = management? The descriptions are fine

> as = far as they go, but if there's something unique about the different = types that

> clearly distinguishes them it = would help to call that out better. Maybe a matrix of the

> various identified types of network and some = of the important characteristics would

> = be appropriate.

>

> Some more detailed comments inline:

>

> >

> >

> = >

> > Global Access to the Internet = for All       &nbs= p;            = J. Saldana, Ed.

> > = Internet-Draft       &nbs= p;            = ;            =     University of Zaragoza

> > Intended status: Informational       &nbs= p;            = ;        A. Arcia-Moret

> > Expires: July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;            = ;      Universidad de Los Andes

> >       &nbs= p;            = ;            =             &= nbsp;           &n= bsp;        B. Braem

> >       &nbs= p;            = ;            =             &= nbsp;           &n= bsp;          = iMinds

> >       &nbs= p;            = ;            =             &= nbsp;           &n= bsp;      L. Navarro

> >       &nbs= p;            = ;            =             &= nbsp;    U. Politecnica Catalunya

> >       &nbs= p;            = ;            =             &= nbsp;           &n= bsp; E. Pietrosemoli

> >       &nbs= p;            = ;            =             &= nbsp;           &n= bsp;            = ICTP

> >       &nbs= p;            = ;                 &nbs= p;            = ;          C. = Rey-Moreno

> >       &nbs= p;            = ;            =            = University of the Western Cape

> = >       &nbs= p;            = ;            =             &= nbsp;           &n= bsp; A. Sathiaseelan

> >       &nbs= p;            = ;            =             &= nbsp;     University of Cambridge

> >       &nbs= p;            = ;            =             &= nbsp;           &n= bsp;      M. Zennaro

> >       &nbs= p;            = ;            =             &= nbsp;            = Abdus Salam ICTP

> >       &nbs= p;            = ;            =             &= nbsp;            = January 21, 2015

> >

>

> Please = review: https://= www.rfc-editor.org/policy.html#policy.authlist

>

> I suggest you = may want to consider identifying a single Editor and moving other

> authors to a Contributing authors = section.

>

> >

> >     Alternative = Network Deployments.  = Taxonomy and characterization

> =

> Given how much of the document is = dedicated to discussing the technologies

> = employed in alternative networks, and their architecture, I wonder about = extending

> the title, e.g.

>

> = "Alternative Networks: Taxonomy, characterization, technologies and = architectures"

>

> >       &nbs= p;        = draft-manyfolks-gaia-community-networks-02

> >

> > = Abstract

> >

> >    This document = presents a taxonomy of "Alternative Network

> >    deployments", = and a set of definitions and shared characteristics.

>

> It also = discusses the technologies employed in these network deployments, and = their

> differing architectural = characteristics.

>

> >    This term includes = a set of network access models emerged in the last

>

> s/models = emerged/models that have emerged/

>

> >    decade with the aim = of bringing Internet connectivity to people,

> >    using topological, = architectural and business models different from

> >    the so-called = "traditional" ones, where a company deploys the network

>

> = s/deploys/deploys or leases/

>

> >    infrastructure for = connecting the users, who pay for it.

> =

> Maybe s/who pay for it/who pay a = subscription fee to be connected and make use

> of it/

>

> >    Several initiatives = throughout the world have built large scale

> >    networks that are = alternative to the traditional network operator

> >    deployments using = predominately wireless technologies (including long

>

> = s/predominately/predominantly

>

> >    distance) due to = the reduced cost of using the unlicensed spectrum.

> >    Wired technologies = such as Fiber are also used in some of these

> >    alternate = networks.  There are = several types of such alternate

> = >    network: = networks such as community networks are self-organized and

> >    decentralized = networks wholly owned by the community; networks owned

> >    by individuals who = act as wireless internet service providers

> >    (WISPs), networks = owned by individuals but leased out to network

> >    operators who use = such networks as a low-cost medium to reach the

> >    underserved = population and finally there are networks that provide

> >    connectivity by = sharing wireless resources of the users.

> = >

> >    The emergence of = these networks can be motivated by different causes

> >    such as the = reluctance, or the impossibility, of network operators to

> >

> = >

> >

> > Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;         [Page 1]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        = January 2015

> >

> >

> >    provide wired and = cellular infrastructures to rural/remote areas.  In

> >    these cases, the = networks have self sustainable business models that

> >    provide more = localised communication services as well as Internet

> >    backhaul support = through peering agreements with traditional network

> >    operators.  Some other times, networks are = built as a complement and

> >    an alternative to = commercial Internet access provided by

> = >    = "traditional" network operators.

> >

> >    The present = classification considers different existing network

> >    models such as = Community Networks, open wireless services, user-

> >    extensible = services, traditional local Internet Service Providers

> >    (ISPs), new global = ISPs, etc.  Different = criteria are used in order

> >    to build a = classification as e.g., the ownership of the equipment,

> >    the way the network = is organized, the participatory model, the

> >    extensibility, if = they are driven by a community, a company or a

> >    local (public or = private) stakeholder, etc.

> >

> >    According to the = developed taxonomy, a characterization of each kind

> >    of network is = presented, in terms of specific network characteristics

> >    related to = architecture, organization, etc.

> = >

> > Status of This Memo

> >

> >    This Internet-Draft = is submitted in full conformance with the

> >    provisions of BCP = 78 and BCP 79.

> >

> >    Internet-Drafts are = working documents of the Internet Engineering

> >    Task Force = (IETF).  Note that other = groups may also distribute

> >    working documents = as Internet-Drafts.  The = list of current Internet-

> >    Drafts is at http://d= atatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

> >

> >    Internet-Drafts are = draft documents valid for a maximum of six months

> >    and may be updated, = replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any

> >    time.  It is inappropriate to use = Internet-Drafts as reference

> >    material or to cite = them other than as "work in progress."

> >

> >    This Internet-Draft = will expire on July 25, 2015.

> >

> > Copyright Notice

> >

> >    Copyright (c) 2015 = IETF Trust and the persons identified as the

> >    document = authors.  All rights = reserved.

> >

> >    This document is subject to BCP = 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal

> >    Provisions Relating = to IETF Documents

> >    (http://t= rustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of

> >    publication of this = document.  Please review = these documents

> >    carefully, as they = describe your rights and restrictions with respect

> >

> = >

> >

> > Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;         [Page 2]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        = January 2015

> >

> >

> >    to this = document.  Code Components = extracted from this document must

> = >    include = Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of

> >    the Trust Legal = Provisions and are provided without warranty as

> >    described in the = Simplified BSD License.

> >

> > Table of Contents

> >

> >    1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = . . . . . . . .   = 4

> >      = 1.1.  Requirements = Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5

> >    2.  Classification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = . . . . . . .   = 5

> >      = 2.1.  Community = Networks  . . . . . . . . . = . . . . . . . . . .   = 5

> >        = 2.1.1.  Free = Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6

> >      = 2.2.  Wireless = Internet Service Providers WISPs . . . . . . . .   7

> >      = 2.3.  Shared = infrastructure model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7

> >      = 2.4.  Crowdshared = approaches, led by the people and third party

> >       &nbs= p;    stakeholders  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = . . . . . .   8

> >      = 2.5.  Testbeds for = research purposes  . . . . = . . . . . . . . .   = 9

> >    3.  Scenarios where Alternative = Networks are deployed . . . . . .   9

> >      = 3.1.  Digital Divide = and Alternative Networks . . . . . . . . .   9

> >      = 3.2.  Urban vs. = rural areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11

> >    4.  Technologies employed . . . . . = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  = 12

> >      = 4.1.  Wired . . . . = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12

> >      = 4.2.  Wireless  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = . . . . . . . .  12

> >        = 4.2.1.  = Antennas  . . . . . = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  = 13

> >        = 4.2.2.  Link length = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14

> >       &nbs= p;  4.2.2.1.  = Line-of-Sight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14

> >       &nbs= p;  4.2.2.2.  = Transmitted and Received Power  . . . . . . . . .  15

> >       &nbs= p;  4.2.2.3.  = Medium Access Protocol  = . . . . . . . . . . . . .  = 16

> >        = 4.2.3.  Layer 2 . . = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16

> >       &nbs= p;  4.2.3.1.  = 802.11 (Wi-Fi)  . . = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  = 16

> >       &nbs= p;  4.2.3.2.  = GSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18

> >       &nbs= p;  4.2.3.3.  = Dynamic Spectrum  . = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  = 18

> >    5.  Network and architecture issues = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  = 20

> >      = 5.1.  Layer 3 . . . = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20

> >        = 5.1.1.  IP = addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20

> >        = 5.1.2.  Routing = protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20

> >       &nbs= p;  5.1.2.1.  = Traditional routing protocols . . . . . . . . . .  21

> >          5.1= .2.2.  Mesh routing = protocols  . . . . . . . . = . . . . .  21

> >      = 5.2.  Upper = layers  . . . . . . . . . . = . . . . . . . . . . . .  = 21

> >        = 5.2.1.  Services = provided by Alternative Networks . . . . . .  22

> >       &nbs= p;  5.2.1.1.  = Intranet services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22

> >       &nbs= p;  5.2.1.2.  = Access to the Internet  = . . . . . . . . . . . . .  = 23

> >      = 5.3.  Topology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = . . . . . . . .  23

> >    6.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = . . . . . .  24

> >    7.  Contributing Authors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = . . . .  24

> >    8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  = 25

> >    9.  Security Considerations . . . . = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  = 25

> >    10. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = . . . . . . . . .  25

> >

> = >

> >

> > Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;         [Page 3]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        = January 2015

> >

> >

> >      = 10.1.  Normative = References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25

> >      = 10.2.  Informative = References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28

> >    Authors' = Addresses  . . . . . . . . = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  = 32

> >

> > 1.  = Introduction

> >

> >    Several initiatives = throughout the world have built large scale

> >    networks that are = alternative to the traditional network operator

> >    deployments using = predominately wireless technologies (including long

>

> = s/predominately/predominantly

>

> >    distance) due to = the reduced cost of using the unlicensed spectrum.

> >    Wired technologies = such as Fiber are also used in some of these

> >    alternate = networks.  There are = several types of such alternate

> = >    network: = networks such as community networks are self-organized and

> >    decentralized networks wholly = owned by the community; networks owned

> = >    by = individuals who act as wireless internet service providers

> >    (WISPs), networks = owned by individuals but leased out to network

> >    operators who use = such networks as a low cost medium to reach the

> >    underserved = population and finally there are networks that provide

> >    connectivity by = sharing wireless resources of the users.

> = >

> >    The emergence of = these networks can be motivated by different causes,

> >    as the reluctance, = or the impossibility, of network operators to

> >    provide wired and = cellular infrastructures to rural/remote areas

> >    = [Pietrosemoli].  In = these cases, the networks have self sustainable

> >    business models = that provide more localised communication services as

> >    well as Internet = backhaul support through peering agreements with

> >    traditional network = operators.  Some other = times, they are built as a

> >    complement and an = alternative to commercial Internet access provided

> >    by "traditional" = network operators.

> >

> >    One of the aims of = the Global Access to the Internet for All (GAIA)

> >    IRTF initiative is = "to document and share deployment experiences and

> >    research results to = the wider community through scholarly

> = >    = publications, white papers, Informational and Experimental = RFCs,

> >    etc."  In line with this objective, = this document is intended to

> >    propose a = classification of these "Alternative Network = deployments".

> >    This term includes = a set of network access models emerged in the last

>

> s/models = emerged/models that have emerged/

>

> >    decade with the aim = of bringing Internet connectivity to people,

> >    following = topological, architectural and business models different

> >    from the so-called = "traditional" ones, where a company deploys the

> >    infrastructure = connecting the users, who pay for it.  The document is

>

> Maybe s/who = pay for it/who pay a subscription fee to be connected and make use

> of it/

>

> >    intended to be = largely descriptive providing a broad overview of

> >    initiatives, = technologies and approaches employed in these networks.

> >    Research references = describing each kind of network are also

> = >    = provided.

> >

> >

> = >

> >

> >

> = >

> > Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;         [Page 4]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        = January 2015

> >

> >

> > = 1.1.  Requirements = Language

> >

> >    The key words = "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", = "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",

> >    "SHOULD", = "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and = "OPTIONAL"

> in this

> >    document are to be = interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

>

> This document = is not on the standards track, so this section is not necessary. = Also,

> capitalisation of words like CAN = and MAY later in the draft is not appropriate.

>

> >

> > 2.  = Classification

> >

> >    This section = classifies Alternative Networks (ANs) according to their

> >    intended = usage.  Each of them has = different incentive structures,

> = >    maybe = common technological challenges, but most importantly

> >    interesting usage = challenges which feeds into the incentives as well

> >    as the = technological challenges.

> >

> >    This classification = is agnostic from the technical point of view.

> >    Technology in this = case must be taken as implementation.  Moreover,

> >    many of these = networks are implemented in a way that several

> >    technologies = (Ad-Hoc Wi-Fi, Infrastructure Wi-Fi, Optical Fiber,

> >    IPv4, IPv6, = RFC1918, OLSR, BMX6, etc.) coexist.

> =

> I wonder if it might be helpful for the = reader to include a loose definition of

> = 'traditional' network, to compare these alternatives with. What is the = defining

> characteristic that makes these = alternatives different?

>

> >

> > = 2.1.  Community = Networks

> >

> >    Community Networks = are large-scale, distributed, self-managed

> >    networks sharing = these characteristics:

> >

> >    - They are built = and organized in a decentralized and open manner.

> >

> >    - They start and = grow organically, they are open to participation

> >    from everyone, = sometimes agreeing to an open peering agreement.

> >    Community members = directly contribute active network infrastructure

> >    (not just passive = infrastructure).

> >

> >    - Knowledge about = building and maintaining the network and ownership

> >    of the network = itself is decentralized and open.  = Community members

> >    have an obvious and = direct form of organizational control over the

> >    overall operation = of the network in their community (not just their

> >    own participation = in the network).

> >

> >    - The network CAN = serve as a backhaul for providing a whole range of

> >    services and = applications, from completely free to even commercial

> >    services.

> >

>

> No need to capitalise CAN. This document is = not standards track or normative. This

> = applies throughout the document, but I'm not going to comment every = time.

>

> = >    Hardware = and software used in Community Networks CAN be very diverse,

> >    even inside one = network.  A Community = Network CAN have both wired and

> = >    wireless = links.  The network CAN be = managed by multiple routing

> >    protocols or = network topology management systems.

> = >

> >

> >

> = >

> >

> > Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;         [Page 5]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        = January 2015

> >

> >

> >    These networks grow = organically, since they are formed by the

> >    aggregation of = nodes belonging to different users.  A minimum

> >    governance = infrastructure is required in order to coordinate IP

> >    addressing, = routing, etc.  A clear = example of this kind of Community

> = >    Network = is described in [Braem].  = These networks are effective in

> = >    enhancing = and extending digital Internet rights following a

> >    participatory = model.

>

> = I couldn't parse the final sentence of that para.

>

> >

> >    The fact of the = users adding new infrastructure (i.e. extensibility)

> >    can be used to = formulate another definition: A Community Network is a

> >    network in which = any participant in the system may add link segments

> >    to the network in = such a way that the new network segments can

> >    support multiple = nodes and adopt the same overall characteristics as

> >    those of the joined = network, including the capacity to further extend

> >    the network.  Once these link segments are = joined to the network,

> >    there is no longer = a meaningful distinction between the previous

> >    extent of the = network and the new extent of the network.

> >

> >    In Community = Networks, the profit can only be made by services and

> >    not by the = infrastructure itself, because the infrastructure is

> >    neutral, free, and = open (traditional Internet Service Providers,

> >    ISPs, base their = business on the control of the infrastructure).  In

> >    Community Networks, = everybody keeps the ownership of what he/she has

> >    contributed.

>

> See earlier = comment about providing a definition of traditional ISP. If there are = other

> defining characteristics, it could = help to identify them up front.

>

> >

> >    Community Networks = MAY also be called "Free Networks" or even

> >    "Network = Commons".  [FNF].  The majority of Community = Networks

> >    accomplishes the = definition of Free Network, included in the next

> >    subsection.

> >

> > = 2.1.1.  Free Networks

> >

> >    A definition of = Free Network (which MAY be the same as Community

> >    Network) is = proposed by the Free Network Foundation (see

> >    http://t= hefnf.org) as:

> >

> >    "A free = network equitably grants the following freedoms to all:

> >

> >    Freedom 0 - The = freedom to communicate for any purpose, without

> >    discrimination, = interference, or interception.

> = >

> >    Freedom 1 - The = freedom to grow, improve, communicate across, and

> >    connect to the = whole network.

> >

> >    Freedom 2- The = freedom to study, use, remix, and share any network

> >    communication = mechanisms, in their most reusable forms."

> >

> = >

> >

> >

> = >

> > Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;         [Page 6]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        January 2015

> >

> >

> >    The principles of = Free, Open and Neutral Networks have also been

> >    summarized (see http://g= uifi.net/en/FONCC) this way:

> = >

> >    - You have the = freedom to use the network for any purpose as long as

> >    you do not harm the = operation of the network itself, the rights of

> >    other users, or the = principles of neutrality that allow contents and

> >    services to flow = without deliberate interference.

> = >

> >    - You have the = right to understand the network, to know its

> >    components, and to = spread knowledge of its mechanisms and principles.

> >

> >    - You have the = right to offer services and content to the network on

> >    your own = terms.

> >

> >    - You have the = right to join the network, and the responsibility to

> >    extend this set of = rights to anyone according to these same terms.

> >

> > = 2.2.  Wireless Internet = Service Providers WISPs

> >

> >    WISPs are = commercially-operated wireless Internet networks that

> >    provide Internet = and/or Voice Over Internet (VoIP) services.  They

> >    are most common in = areas not covered by incumbent telcos or ISPs.

> >    WISPs often use = wireless point-to-point or point-to-multipoint in the

> >    unlicensed = frequencies but licensed frequency use is common too

> >    especially in = regions where unlicensed spectrum is either perceived

> >    as crowded or where = unlicensed spectrum may have regulatory barriers

> >    impeding its = use.

> >

> >    Most WISPs are = operated by local companies responding to a perceived

> >    market gap.  There is a small but growing = number of WISPs, such as

> >    AirJaldi [Airjaldi] = in India that have expanded from local service

> >    into multiple = locations.

>

> What I miss in this section is some text that = talks about why a WISP is able to

> = succeed where an incumbent or traditional ISP is not. If WISPs are = for-profit

> enterprises, then why are = they able to make a return, or why do incumbents choose

> not to?

>

> >

> >    Since 2006, the = deployment of cloud-managed WISPs has been possible

>

> I think a = sentence defining 'cloud-managed' would be helpful here.

>

> >    with companies like = Meraki and later OpenMesh and others.  Until

> >    recently, however, = most of these services have been aimed at

> >    industrialised = markets.  Everylayer = [Everylayer], launched in 2014,

> = >    is the = first cloud-managed WISP service aimed at emerging markets.

> >

> > = 2.3.  Shared infrastructure = model

> >

> >    These networks are = owned by individuals but leased out to network

> >    operators who use = them as a low cost medium to reach the underserved

> >    population.

> >

> = >

>

> = Can you give a more expansive example. Do you mean something like FON = (I

> guess not as that is described in the = next section)? How is this different from an

> (M)VNO?

>

> >

> = >

> >

> >

> = >

> > Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;         [Page 7]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        = January 2015

> >

> >

> > = 2.4.  Crowdshared = approaches, led by the people and third party

> >       = stakeholders

> >

> >    These networks can = be defined as a set of nodes whose owners share

> >    common interests = (e.g. sharing connectivity; resources; peripherals)

> >    regardless of their = physical location.  The = node location exhibits a

> >    space and time = correlation which is the basis to establish a robust

> >    connectivity model = over time.

>

> I couldn't really parse that last = sentence.

>

> >

> >    These networks = conform to the following approach: the home router

> >    creates two = wireless networks: one of them is normally used by the

> >    owner, and the = other one is public.  A = small fraction of the

> >    bandwidth is = allocated to the public network, to be employed by any

> >    user of the service = in the immediate area.  = Some examples are

> >    described in [PAWS] = and [Sathiaseelan_c].  = Other example is

> >    constituted by the = networks created and managed by City Councils

> >    (e.g., = [Heer]).

> >

> >    In the same way, = some companies [Fon] develop and sell Wi-Fi routers

> >    with a dual access: = a Wi-Fi network for the user, and a shared one.

> >    A user community is = created, and people can join the network in

> >    different ways: = they can buy a router, so they share their connection

> >    and in turn they = get access to all the routers associated to the

> >    community.  Some users can even get some = revenue every time another

> >    user connects to = their Wi-Fi spot.  Other = users can just buy some

> >    passes in order to = use the network.  Some = telecommunications

> >    operators can = collaborate with the community, including in their

> >    routers the = possibility of creating these two networks.

> >

> >    A Virtual Private = Network (VPN) is created for public traffic, so it

> >    is completely = secure and separated from the owner's connection.  The

> >    network capacity = shared may employ a low priority, a less-than-best-

> >    effort or scavenger = approach, so as not to harm the traffic of the

> >    owner of the = connection [Sathiaseelan_a].

> >

> >    The elements = involved in a crowd-shared network are summarised below:

> >

> >    - Interest: a = parameter capable of providing a measure (cost) of the

> >    attractiveness of a = node towards a specific location, in a specific

> >    instance in = time.

> >

> >    - Resources: A = physical or virtual element of a global system.  For

> >    instance, = bandwidth; energy; data; devices.

> = >

> >    - The owner: End = users who sign up for the service and share their

> >    network = capacity.  As a = counterpart, they can access another owners'

> >    home access for = free.  The owner can be an = end user or an entity

> >

> >

> = >

> >

> > Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;         [Page 8]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        = January 2015

> >

> >

> >    (e.g.  operator; virtual operator; = municipality) that is to be made

> = >    = responsible for any actions concerning his/her device.

> >

> >    - The user: a legal = entity or an individual using or requesting a

> >    publicly available = electronic communications' service for private or

> >    business purposes, = without necessarily having subscribed to such

> >    service.

> >

> >    - The Virtual = Network Operator (VNO): An entity that acts in some

> >    aspects as a = network coordinator.  It = may provide services such as

> >    initial = authentication or registering, and eventually, trust

> >    relationship = storage.  A VNO is not an = ISP given that it does not

> >    provide Internet = access (e.g. infrastructure; naming).  A VNO is

> >    neither an = Application Service Provider (ASP) since it does not

> >    provide user = services.  Virtual = Operators MAY also be stakeholders

> = >    with = socio-environmental objectives.  = They CAN be a local government,

> = >    grass = root user communities, charities, or even content operators,

> >    smart grid = operators, etc.  They are = the ones who actually run the

> >    service.

> >

> > =    - Network = operators, who have a financial incentive to lease out the

> >    unused capacity = [Sathiaseelan_b] at lower cost to the VNOs.

> >

> >    VNOs pay the = sharers and the network operators, thus creating an

> >    incentive structure = for all the actors: the end users get money for

> >    sharing their = network, the network operators are paid by the VNOs,

> >    who in turn = accomplish their socio-environmental role.

> >

> > = 2.5.  Testbeds for research = purposes

> >

> >    In some cases, the = initiative to start the network is not from the

> >    community, but from = a research entity (e.g. a university), with the

> >    aim of using it for = research purposes [Samanta], [Bernardi].

> =

> This section is kind of amusing to me, = given the origins of the Internet. Maybe it is

> Comcast, BT, Telefonica et al. that are the = 'Alternative Networks'? :)

>

> >

> > = 3.  Scenarios where = Alternative Networks are deployed

> = >

> >    Alternative Network = deployments are present in every part of the

> >    world.  Even in some high-income = countries, these networks have been

> = >    built as = an alternative to commercial ones managed by traditional

> >    network = operators.  This section = discusses the scenarios where

> >    Alternative = Networks have been deployed.

> >

> > 3.1.  Digital Divide and Alternative = Networks

> >

> >    There is no = definition for what a developing country represents that

> >    has been recognized = internationally, but the term is generally used

> >    to describe a = nation with a low level of material well-being.  In

> >    this sense, one of = the most commonly used classification is the one

> >

> = >

> >

> > Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;         [Page 9]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        = January 2015

> >

> >

> >    by the World Bank, = who ranks countries according to their Gross

> >    National Income = (GNI) per Capita: low income, middle income, and high

> >    income, being those = falling within the low and middle income groups

> >    considered = developing economies.  = Developing countries have also been

> >    defined as those = which are in transition from traditional lifestyles

> >    towards the modern = lifestyle which began in the Industrial

> = >    = Revolution.  = Additionally, the Human Development Index, which

> >    considers not only = the GNI but also life expectancy and education,

> >    has been proposed = by the United Nations to rank countries according

> >    to their well-being = and not solely based on economic terms.  These

> >    classifications are = used to give strong signals to the international

> >    community about the = need of special concessions in support of these

> >    countries, implying = a correlation between development and increased

> >    well-being.

> >

> >    However, at the = beginning of the 90's the debates about how to

> >    quantify development = in a country were shaken by the appearance of

> >    Internet and mobile = phones, which many authors consider the beginning

> >    of the Information = Society.  With the = beginning of this Digital

> >    Revolution, = defining development based on Industrial Society concepts

> >    started to be = challenged, and links between digital development and

> >    its impact on human = development started to flourish.  = The following

> >    dimensions are = considered to be meaningful when measuring the digital

> >    development state of = a country: infrastructures (availability and

> >    affordability); ICT = (Information and Communications Technology)

> >    sector (human = capital and technological industry); digital literacy;

> >    legal and = regulatory framework; and content and services.  The lack

> >    or less extent of = digital development in one or more of these

> >    dimensions is what = has been referred as Digital Divide.  This divide

> >    is a new vector of = inequality which - as it happened during the

> >    Industrial = Revolution - generates a lot of progress at the expense of

> >    creating a lot = economic poverty and exclusion.  = The Digital Divide is

> >    considered to be a = consequence of other socio-economic divides,

> >    while, at the same = time, a reason for their rise.

> = >

> >    In this context, = the so-called "developing countries", in order not

> >    to be left behind = of this incipient digital revolution, motivated the

> >    World Summit of the = Information Society which aimed at achieving "a

> >    people-centred, = inclusive and development-oriented Information

> >    Society, where = everyone can create, access, utilize and share

> >    information and = knowledge, enabling individuals, communities and

> >    peoples to achieve = their full potential in promoting their

> = >    = sustainable development and improving their quality of life" = [WSIS],

> >    and called upon = "governments, private sector, civil society and

> >    international = organisations" to actively engage to accomplish it

> >    [WSIS].

> >

> = >

> >

> >

> = >

> > Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;        [Page 10]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        = January 2015

> >

> >

> >    Most efforts from = governments and international organizations focused

> >    initially on = improving and extending the existing infrastructure in

> >    order not to leave = their population behind.  = As an example, one of

> >    the goals of the = Digital Agenda for Europe [DAE] is "to increase

> >    regular internet = usage from 60% to 75% by 2015, and from 41% to 60%

> >    among disadvantaged = people."

> >

> >    Universal Access = and Service plans have taken different forms in

> >    different countries = over the years, with very uneven success rates,

> >    but in most cases = inadequate to the scale of the problem.  Given its

> >    incapacity to solve = the problem, some governments included Universal

> >    Service and Access = obligations to mobile network operators when

> >    liberalizing the = telecommunications market.  = In combination with the

> >    overwhelming and = unexpected uptake of mobile phones by poor people,

> >    this has mitigated = the low access indicators existing in many

> >    developing = countries at the beginning of the 90s [Rendon].

> >

> >    Although the = contribution made by mobile network operators in

> >    decreasing the = access gap is undeniable, their model presents some

> >    constraints that = limit the development outcomes that increased

> >    connectivity = promises to bring.  Prices, = tailored for the more

> >    affluent part of = the population, remain unaffordable to many, who

> >    invest large = percentages of their disposable income in

> >    = communications.  = Additionally, the cost of prepaid packages, the only

> >    option available = for the informal economies existing throughout

> >    developing = countries, is high compared with the rate longer-term

> >    subscribers = pay.

> >

> >    The consolidation = of many Alternative Networks (e.g.  Community

> >    Networks) in high = income countries sets a precedent for civil society

> >    members from the = so-called developing countries to become more active

> >    in the search for = alternatives to provide themselves with affordable

> >    access.  Furthermore, Alternative = Networks could contribute to other

> = >    = dimensions of the digital development like increased human = capital

> >    and the creation of = contents and services targeting the locality of

> >    each network.

> >

> > = 3.2.  Urban vs. rural = areas

> >

> >    The Digital Divide = presented in the previous section is not only

> >    present between = countries, but within them too.  = This is specially

> >    the case for rural = inhabitants, which represents approximately 55% of

> >    the world's = population, from which 78% inhabit in developing

> >    countries.  Although it is impossible to = generalize among them, there

> >    exist some common = features that have determined the availability of

> >    ICT infrastructure = in these regions.  The = disposable income of their

> >    dwellers is lower = than those inhabiting urban areas, with many

> >    surviving on a = subsistence economy.  Many = of them are located in

> >

> >

> = >

> > Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;        [Page 11]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        = January 2015

> >

> >

> >    geographies = difficult to access and exposed to extreme weather

> >    conditions.  This has resulted in the almost = complete lack of

> >    electrical = infrastructure.  This = context, together with their low

> = >    = population density, discourages telecommunications operators = to

> >    provide similar = services to those provided to urban dwellers, since

> >    they do not deem = them profitable.

> >

> >    The cost of the = wireless infrastructure required to set up a network,

> >    including powering = it via solar energy, is within the range of

> >    availability if not = of individuals at least of entire communities.

> >    The social capital = existing in these areas can allow for Alternative

> >    Network set-ups = where a reduced number of nodes may cover communities

> >    whose dwellers = share the cost of the infrastructure and the gateway

> >    and access it via = inexpensive wireless devices.  = Some examples are

> >    presented in = [Pietrosemoli] and [Bernardi].

> = >

> >    In this case, the = lack of awareness and confidence of rural

> >    communities to = embark themselves in such tasks can become major

> >    barriers to their = deployment.  Scarce = technical skills in these

> >    regions have been = also pointed as a challenge for their success, but

> >    the proliferation = of urban Community Networks, where scarcity of

> >  =   spectrum, = scale, and heterogeneity of devices pose tremendous

> >    challenges to their = stability and the services they aim to provide,

> >    has fuelled the = creation of robust low-cost low-consumption low-

> >    complexity = off-the-shelf wireless devices which make much easier the

> >    deployment and = maintenance of these alternative infrastructures in

> >    rural areas.

> >

> > = 4.  Technologies = employed

> >

> > 4.1.  Wired

> >

> >    In many (developed = or developing) countries it may happen that

> >    national service = providers may decline to provide connectivity to

> >    tiny and isolated = villages.  So in some cases = the villagers have

> >    created their own = optical fiber networks.  It = is the case of

> >    Lowenstedt in = Germany [Lowenstedt].

> >

> > 4.2.  Wireless

> >

> >    Different wireless = technologies [WNDW] can be employed in Alternative

> >    Network = deployments.  Below we = summarise topics to be considered in

> = >    such = deployments:

> >

> >

> = >

> >

> >

> = >

> >

> >

> > = Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;        [Page = 12]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        = January 2015

> >

> >

> > = 4.2.1.  Antennas

> >

> >    Three kinds of = antennas are suitable to be used in these networks:

> >    omnidirectional, = directional and high gain antennas.

> = >

> >    For local access, = omnidirectional antennas are the most useful, since

> >    they provide the = same coverage in all directions of the plane in

> >    which they are = located.  Above and below = this plane, the received

> >    signal will = diminish, so the maximum benefits are obtained when the

> >    client is at = approximately the same height as the Access Point.

> >

> >    When using an = omnidirectional antenna outdoors to provide

> >    connectivity to a = large area, people often select high gain antennas

> >    located at the = highest structure available to extend the coverage.

> >    In many cases this = is counterproductive, since a high gain

> = >    = omnidirectional antenna will have a very narrow beamwidth in = the

> >    vertical plane, = meaning that clients that are below the plane of the

> >    antenna will = receive a very weak signal (and by the reciprocity

> >    property of all = antennas, the antenna will also receive a feeble

> >    signal from the = client).  A moderate gain = omnidirectional of about 8

> >    to 10 dBi is = normally preferable.  = Higher gain omnidirectional

> = >    antennas = are only advisable when the farthest way client is roughly

> >    in the same = plane.

> >

> >    For indoor clients, = omnidirectional antennas are generally fine,

> >    because the = numerous reflections normally found in indoor

> >    environments negate = the advantage of using directional antennas.

> >

> >    For outdoor = clients, directional antennas can be quite useful to

> >    extend coverage to = an Access Point fitted with an omnidirectional

> >    one.

> >

> >    When building = point-to-point links, the highest gain antennas are the

> >    best choice, since = their narrow beamwidth mitigates interference from

> >    other users and can = provide the longest links [Flickenger],

> = >    = [Zennaro].

> >

> >    24 to 34 dBi = antennas are commercially available at both the

> >    unlicensed 2.4 GHz = and 5 GHz bands, and even higher gain antennas can

> >    be found in the = newer unlicensed bands at 17 GHz and 24 GHz.

> >

> >    Despite the fact = that the free space loss is directly proportional to

> >    the square of the = frequency, it is normally advisable to use higher

> >    frequencies for = point-to-point links when there is a clear line of

> >    sight, because it = is normally easier to get higher gain antennas at 5

> >    GHz.  Deploying high gain antennas at = both ends will more than

> >    compensate for the = additional free space loss.  = Furthermore, higher

> >    frequencies can = make do with lower altitude antenna placement since

> >

> = >

> >

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> >

> >

> >    the Fresnel = ellipsoid (the volume around the optical line occuppied

> >    by radio waves, = which should be free from obstacles), is inversely

> >    proportional to the = square root of the frequency.

> >

> >    On the contrary, = lower frequencies offer advantages when the line of

> >    sight is blocked = because they can leverage diffraction to reach the

> >    intended = receiver.

> >

> >    It is common to = find dual radio Access Points, at two different

> >    frequency = bands.  One way of = benefiting from this arrangement is to

> = >    attach a = directional antenna to the high frequency radio for

> >    connection to the = backbone and an omnidirectional one to the lower

> >    frequency to = provide local access.

> >

> >    In the case of mesh = networking, where the antenna should connect to

> >    several other = nodes, it is better to use omnidirectional antennas.

> >

> >    The same type of = polarisation must be used at both ends of any radio

> >    link.  For point-to-point links, some = vendors use two radios

> >    operating at the = same frequency but with orthogonal polarisations,

> >    thus doubling the = achievable throughput, and also offering added

> >    protection to = multipath and other transmission impairments.

> >

> > = 4.2.2.  Link length

> >

> > = 4.2.2.1.  = Line-of-Sight

> >

> >    For short distance = transmission, there is no strict requirement of

> >    line of sight = between the transmitter and the receiver, and multipath

> >    can guarantee = communication despite the existence of obstacles in the

> >    direct path.

> >

> >    For longer = distances, the first requirement is the existence of an

> >    unobstructed line = of sight between the transmitter and the receiver.

> >    For very long path = the earth curvature is an obstacle that must be

> >    cleared, but the = trajectory of the radio beam is not strictly a

> >    straight line due = to the bending of the rays as a consequence of non-

> >    uniformities of the = atmosphere.  Most of the = time this bending will

> >    mean that the radio = horizon extends further than the optical horizon.

> >

> >    Another factor to = be considered is that the Fresnel zone (the volume

> >    around the optical = line) must be unencumbered from obstacles for the

> >    maximum signal to = be captured at the receiver.  = The size of the

> >    Fresnel ellipsoid = grows with the distance between the end points and

> >    with the wavelength = of the signal, which in turn is inversely

> >    proportional to the = frequency.

> >

> >

> = >

> >

> >

> > = Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;        [Page 14]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        = January 2015

> >

> >

> >    For optimum signal = reception the end points must be high enough to

> >    clear any obstacle = in the path and leave extra "elbow room" for the

> >    Fresnel zone.  This can be achieved by using = suitable masts at either

> >    end, or by taking = advantage of existing structures or hills.

> >

> > = 4.2.2.2.  Transmitted and = Received Power

> >

> >    Once a clear = radio-electric line of sight (including the Fresnel zone

> >    clearance) is = obtained, one must ascertain that the received power is

> >    well above the = sensitivity of the receiver, by what is known as the

> >    "link = margin".  The greater = the link margin, the more reliable the

> = >    = link.  For mission = critical applications 20 dB margin is suggested,

> >    but for non = critical ones 10 dB might suffice.

> = >

> >    The sensitivity of = the receiver decreases with the transmission

> >    speed, so more = power is needed at greater transmission speeds.

> >

> >    The received power = is determined by the transmitted power, the gain

> >    of the transmitting = and receiving antennas and the propagation loss.

> >

> >    The propagation = loss is the sum of the free space loss (proportional

> >    to the square of = the the frequency and the square of the distance),

> >    plus additional = factors like attenuation in the atmosphere by gases

> >    or meteorological = effects (which are strongly frequency dependent),

> >    multipath and = diffraction losses.

> >

> >    Multipath is more = pronounced in trajectories over water.  If they

> >    cannot be avoided = special countermeasures should be taken.

> = >

> >    In order to achieve = a given link margin (also called "fade margin"),

> >    one can:

> >

> >    a) Increase the = output power.The maximum transmitted power is

> >    specified by each = country's regulation, and for unlicensed

> = >    = frequencies is much lower than for licensed frequencies.

> >

> >    b) Increase the = antenna gain.  There is no = limit in the gain of the

> >    receiving antenna, = but high gain antennas are bulkier, present more

> >    wind resistance and = require sturdy mounts to comply with tighter

> >    alignment = requirements.  The = transmitter antenna gain is also

> = >    regulated = and can be different for point-to-point as for point-to-

> >    multipoint = links.  Many countries = impose a limit in the combination

> = >    of = transmitted power and antenna gain, EIRP (Equivalent Isotropically

> >    Irradiated Power) = which can be different for point-to- point or

> >    point-to-multipoint = links.

> >

> >    c) Reduce the = propagation loss, by using a more favorable frequency

> >    or a shorter = path.

> >

> >

> = >

> > Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;        [Page 15]

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> >

> >

> >    d) Use a more = sensitive receiver.  = Receiver sensitivity can be

> = >    improved = by using better circuits, but it is ultimately limited by

> >    the thermal noise, = which is proportional to temperature and

> = >    = bandwidth.  One can = increase the sensitivity by using a smaller

> >    receiving = bandwidth, or by settling to lower throughput even in the

> >    same receiver = bandwidth.  This step is = often done automatically in

> >    many protocols, in = which the transmission speed can be reduced from

> >    150 Mbit/s to 6 = Mbit/s if the receiver power is not enough to sustain

> >    the maximum = throughput.

> >

> > 4.2.2.3.  Medium Access Protocol

> >

> >    A completely = different limiting factor is related to the medium

> >    access = protocol.  Wi-Fi was = designed for short distance, and the

> = >    = transmitter expects the reception of an acknowledgment for = each

> >    transmitted packet = in a certain amount of time; if the waiting time

> >    is exceeded, the = packet is retransmitted.  = This will significantly

> >    reduce the = throughput at long distance, so for long distance

> >    applications it is = better to use a different medium access technique,

> >    in which the = receiver does not wait for an acknowledgement of the

> >    transited = packet.  This strategy of = TDMA (Time Domain Multiple

> >    Access) has been = adopted by many equipment vendors who offer

> >    proprietary = protocols alongside the standard Wi-Fi in order to

> >    increase the = throughput at longer distances.  = Low cost equipment

> >    using TDMA can = offer high throughput at distances over 100

> >    kilometers.

> >

> > = 4.2.3.  Layer 2

> >

> > = 4.2.3.1.  802.11 = (Wi-Fi)

> >

> >    Wireless standards = ensure interoperability and usability to those who

> >    design, deploy and = manage wireless networks.  = The standards used in

> >    the vast majority = of Community Networks come from the IEEE Standard

> >    Association's IEEE = 802 Working Group.

> >

> >    The standard we are = most interested in is 802.11 a/b/g/n,

> = >    = [IEEE.802-11A.1999], [IEEE.802-11B.1999], = [IEEE.802-11G.2003],

> >    [IEEE.802-11N.2009] = as it defines the protocol for Wireless LAN.

> >  =   Different = 802.11 amendments have been released, as shown in the table

> >    below, also = including their frequencies and approximate ranges.

> >

> = >

> >

> >

> = >

> >

> >

> = >

> >

> >

> > = Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;        [Page 16]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        = January 2015

> >

> >

> >    |802.11| Release | = Freq |BWdth | Data Rate per  = |  Approx range (m) = |

> >    |prot  |  date   | (GHz)|(MHz) |stream = (Mbit/s) | indoor |  = outdoor |

> >    = +------+---------+------+------+----------------+--------+--------= --+

> >    |  a   |Sep 1999 | 5    |  20  | 6,9,12, 18, 24,|    35  |    120   |

> >    |      |       &nbs= p; |      |      | 36, = 48, 54     = |        = |       &nbs= p;  |

> >    |  b   |Sep 1999 | 2.4  |  20  | 1, 2, 5.5, 11  |    35  |    140   |

> >    |  g   |Jun 2003 | 2.4  |  20  | 6,9,12, 18, 24,|    38  |    140   |

> >    |      |       &nbs= p; |      |      | 36, = 48, 54     = |        = |       &nbs= p;  |

> >    |  n   |Oct 2009 | 2.4/5|  20  | 7.2, 14.4, 21.7|    70  |    250   |

> >    |      |       &nbs= p; |      |      | 28.9, = 43.3,    |        = |       &nbs= p;  |

> >    |      |       &nbs= p; |      |      | 57.8, = 65, 72.2 |        = |       &nbs= p;  |

> >    |  n   |Oct 2009 | 2.4/5|  40  | 15, 30, 45, 60,|    70  |    250   |

> >    |      |       &nbs= p; |      |      | 90, = 120,       = |        = |       &nbs= p;  |

> >    |      |       &nbs= p; |      |      | 135, = 150       = |        = |       &nbs= p;  |

> >    |  ac  |Nov 2011 | 5    |  20  | Up to 87.6     |        = |       &nbs= p;  |

> >    |  ac  |Nov 2011 | 5    |  40  | Up to 200      |        = |       &nbs= p;  |

> >    |  ac  |Nov 2011 | 5    |  80  | Up to 433.3    |        = |       &nbs= p;  |

> >    |  ac  |Nov 2011 | 5    |  160 | Up to 866.7    |        = |       &nbs= p;  |

> >

> >    In 2012 IEEE issued = the 802.11-2012 Standard that consolidates all

> >    the previous = amendments.  The document = is freely downloadable from

> >    IEEE Standards = [IEEE].

> >

> > 4.2.3.1.1.  Deployment planning for 802.11 = wireless networks

> >

> >    Before packets can = be forwarded and routed to the Internet, layers

> >    one (the physical) = and two (the data link) need to be connected.

> >    Without link local = connectivity, network nodes cannot talk to each

> >    other and route = packets.

> >

> >    To provide physical = connectivity, wireless network devices MUST

> >    operate in the same = part of the radio spectrum.  = This means that

> >    802.11a radios will = talk to 802.11a radios at around 5 GHz, and

> >    802.11b/g radios = will talk to other 802.11b/g radios at around 2.4

> >    GHz.  But an 802.11a device cannot = interoperate with an 802.11b/g

> >    device, since they = use completely different parts of the

> = >    = electromagnetic spectrum.  = More specifically, wireless interfaces

> >    must agree on a = common channel.  If one = 802.11b radio card is set to

> >    channel 2 while = another is set to channel 11, then the radios cannot

> >    communicate with = each other.

> >

> >    When two wireless = interfaces are configured to use the same protocol

> >    on the same radio = channel, then they are ready to negotiate data link

> >    layer = connectivity.  Each = 802.11a/b/g device can operate in one of

> = >    four = possible modes:

> >

> >    1.  Master mode (also called AP or = infrastructure mode) is used to

> = >    create a = service that looks like a traditional Access Point.  The

> >

> = >

> >

> > Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;        [Page 17]

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> >

> >

> >    wireless interface = creates a network with a specified name (called

> >    the SSID, Service = Set IDentifier) and channel, and offers network

> >    services on = it.  While in master mode, = wireless interfaces manage all

> >    communications = related to the network (authenticating wireless

> >    clients, handling = channel contention, repeating packets, etc.)

> >    Wireless interfaces = in master mode can only communicate with

> = >    = interfaces that are associated with them in managed mode.

> >

> >    2.  Managed mode is sometimes also = referred to as client mode.

> >    Wireless interfaces = in managed mode will join a network created by a

> >    master, and will = automatically change their channel to match it.

> >    They then present = any necessary credentials to the master, and if

> >    those credentials = are accepted, they are associated with the master.

> >    Managed mode = interfaces do not communicate with each other directly,

> >    and only = communicate with an associated master.

> = >

> >    3.  Ad-hoc mode creates a = multipoint-to-multipoint network where

> = >    there is = no single master node or AP.  = In ad-hoc mode, each wireless

> = >    interface = communicates directly with its neighbours.  Nodes must be

> >    in range of each = other to communicate, and must agree on a network

> >    name and = channel.  Ad-hoc mode is = often also called Mesh Networking.

> = >

> >    4.  Monitor mode is used by some = tools (such as Kismet) to passively

> = >    listen to = all radio traffic on a given channel.  When in monitor

> >    mode, wireless = interfaces transmit no data.  = This is useful for

> >    analysing problems = on a wireless link or observing spectrum usage in

> >    the local = area.  Monitor mode is not = used for normal communications.

> = >

> >    When implementing a = point-to-point or point-to-multipoint link, one

> >    radio will = typically operate in master mode, while the other(s)

> >    operate in managed = mode.  In a = multipoint-to-multipoint mesh, the

> = >    radios = all operate in ad-hoc mode so that they can communicate with

> >    each other = directly.  Managed mode = clients cannot communicate with

> = >    each = other directly, so a high repeater site is required in master or

> >    ad-hoc mode.  Ad-hoc is more flexible but has = a number of performance

> >    issues as compared = to using the master / managed modes.

> = >

> > 4.2.3.2.  GSM

> >

> >    GSM has also been = used in Alternative Networks as Layer 2 option, as

> >    explained in = [Mexican].

> >

> > 4.2.3.3.  Dynamic Spectrum

> >

> >    Some Alternative = Networks make use of TV White Spaces - a set of UHF

> >    and VHF television = frequencies that can be utilized by secondary

> >    users in locations = where it is unused by licensed primary users such

> >    as television = broadcasters.  Equipment = that makes use of TV White

> >

> >

> = >

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> >

> >

> >    Spaces is required = to detect the presence of existing unused TV

> >    channels by means = of a spectrum database and/or spectrum sensing in

> >    order to ensure = that no harmful interference is caused to primary

> >    users.  In order to smartly allocate = interference-free channels to

> >    the devices, = cognitive radios are used which are able to modify their

> >    frequency, power = and modulation techniques to meet the strict

> >    operating = conditions required for secondary users.

> = >

> >    The use of the term = "White Spaces" is often used to describe "TV

> >    White Spaces" = as the VHF and UHF television frequencies were the

> >    first to be = exploited on a secondary use basis.  There are two

> >    dominant standards = for TV white space communication: (i) the 802.11af

> >    standard = [IEEE.802-11AF.2013] - an adaptation of the 802.11 standard

> >    for TV white space = bands and (ii) the IEEE 802.22 standard

> = >    = [IEEE.802-22.2011] for long-range rural communication.

> >

> > = 4.2.3.3.1.  802.11af

> >

> >    802.11af = [IEEE.802-11AF.2013] is a modified version of the 802.11

> >    standard operating = in TV White Space bands using Cognitive Radios to

> >    avoid interference = with primary users.  The = standard is often

> >    referred to as = White-Fi or Super WiFi and was approved in February

> >    2014. 802.11af = contains much of the advances of all the 802.11

> >    standards including = recent advances in 802.11ac such as up to four

> >    bonded channels, = four spatial streams and very high rate 256-QAM

> >    modulation but with = improved in-building penetration and outdoor

> >    coverage.  The maximum data rate = achievable is 426.7 Mbps for

> >    countries with 6/7 = MHz channels and 568.9 Mbps for countries with 8

> >    MHz channels.  Coverage is typically limited = to 1km although longer

> >    range at lower = throughput and using high gain antennas will be

> >    possible.

> >

> >    Devices are = designated as enabling stations (access points) or

> >    dependent stations = (clients).  Enabling = stations are authorized to

> >    control the = operation of a dependent station and securely access a

> >    geolocation = database.  Once the = enabling station has received a list

> = >    of = available white space channels it can announce a chosen channel to

> >    the dependent = stations for them to communicate with the enabling

> >    station. 802.11af = also makes use of a registered location server - a

> >    local database that = organizes the geographic location and operating

> >    parameters of all = enabling stations.

> >

> > 4.2.3.3.2.  802.22

> >

> >    802.22 = [IEEE.802-22.2011] is a standard developed specifically for

> >    long range rural = communications in TV white space frequencies and

> >    first approved in = July 2011.  The standard is = similar to the 802.16

> >    (WiMax) = [IEEE.802-16.2008] standard with an added cognitive radio

> >

> = >

> >

> > Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;        [Page 19]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        = January 2015

> >

> >

> >    ability.  The maximum throughput of = 802.22 is 22.6 Mbps for a single

> = >    8 MHz = channel using 64-QAM modulation.  = The achievable range using

> = >    the = default MAC scheme is 30 km, however 100 km is possible with

> >    special scheduling = techniques.  The MAC of = 802.22 is specifically

> >    customized for long = distances - for example, slots in a frame

> >    destined for more = distant CPEs are sent before slots destined for

> >    nearby CPEs.

> >

> >    Base stations are = required to have a GPS and a connection to the

> >    Internet in order = to query a geolocation spectrum database.  Once the

> >    base station = receives the allowed TV channels, it communicates a

> >    preferred operating = white space TV channel with the Client Premises

> >    Equipment (CPE) = devices.  The standard also = has a co-existence

> >    mechanism that uses = beacons to make other 802.22 base stations aware

> >    of the presence of = a base station that is not part of the same

> >    network.

> >

> > = 5.  Network and = architecture issues

> >

> > 5.1.  Layer 3

> >

> > = 5.1.1.  IP addressing

> >

> >    Most known = Alternative Networks started in or around the year 2000.

> >    IPv6 was fully = specified by then, but almost all Alternative Networks

> >    still use = IPv4.  A survey [Avonts] = indicated that IPv6 rollout

> >    presents a = challenge to Community Networks.

> = >

> >    Most Community = Networks use private IPv4 address ranges, as defined

> >    by RFC 1918 = [RFC1918].  The motivation = for this was the lower cost

> >    and the simplified = IP allocation because of the large available

> >    address = ranges.

> >

> > 5.1.2.  Routing protocols

> >

> >    Alternative = Networks are composed of possibly different layer 2

> >    devices, resulting = in a mesh of nodes.  = Connection between different

> = >    nodes is = not guaranteed and the link stability can vary strongly over

> >    time.  To tackle this, some = Alternative Networks use mesh network

> = >    routing = protocols while other networks use more traditional routing

> >    protocols.  Some networks operate multiple = routing protocols in

> >    parallel.  For example, they use a mesh = protocol inside different

> >    islands and use = traditional routing protocols to connect islands.

> >

> = >

> >

> >

> = >

> >

> >

> = >

> > Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;        [Page 20]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        = January 2015

> >

> >

> > = 5.1.2.1.  Traditional = routing protocols

> >

> >    The BGP protocol, = as defined by RFC 4271 [RFC4271] is used by a

> >    number of Community = Networks, because of its well-studied behavior

> >    and = scalability.

> >

> >    For similar = reasons, smaller networks opt to run the OSPF protocol,

> >    as defined by RFC = 2328 [RFC2328].

> >

> > 5.1.2.2.  Mesh routing protocols

> >

> >    A large number of = Alternative Networks use the OLSR routing protocol

> >    as defined in RFC = 3626 [RFC3626].  The = pro-active link state routing

> >    protocol is a good = match with Alternative Networks because it has

> >    good performance in = mesh networks where nodes have multiple

> = >    = interfaces.

> >

> >    The Better Approach = To Mobile Adhoc Networking (BATMAN) [Abolhasan]

> >    protocol was = developed by members of the Freifunk community.  The

> >    protocol handles = all routing at layer 2, creating one bridged

> >    network.

> >

> >    Parallel to BGP, = some networks also run the BMX6 protocol [Neumann].

> >    This is an advanced = version of the BATMAN protocol which is based on

> >    IPv6 and tries to = exploit the social structure of Alternative

> >    Networks.

> >

> > = 5.2.  Upper layers

> >

> >    From crowdshared = perspective, and considering just regular TCP

> >    connections during = the critical sharing time, the Access Point

> >    offering the = service is likely to be the bottleneck of the

> >    connection.  This is the main concern of = sharers, having several

> >    implications.  There should be an adequate = Active Queue Management

> >    (AQM) mechanism = that implements a Less than Best Effort (LBE) policy

> >    for the user and = protects the sharer.  = Achieving LBE behaviour

> >    requires the = appropriate tuning of the well known mechanisms such as

> >    ECN, or RED, or = others more recent AQM mechanisms such as CoDel and

> >    PIE that aid on = keeping low latency RFC 6297 [RFC6297].

> = >

> >    The user traffic = should not interfere with the sharer's traffic.

> >    However, other = bottlenecks besides client's access bottleneck may not

> >    be controlled by = the previously mentioned protocols.  Therefore,

> >    recently proposed = transport protocols like LEDBAT [Ros], [Komnios]

> >    with the purpose of = transporting scavenger traffic may be a solution.

> >    LEDBAT requires the = cooperation of both the client and the server to

> >    achieve certain = target delay, therefore controlling the impact of the

> >    user along all the = path.

> >

> >

> = >

> > Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;        [Page 21]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        = January 2015

> >

> >

> >    There are = applications that manage aspects of the network from the

> >    sharer side and = from the client side.  From = sharer's side, there are

> >    applications to centralise = the management of the APs conforming the

> = >    network = that have been recently proposed by means of SDN

> >    [Sathiaseelan_a], = [Suresh].  There are also = other proposals such as

> >    Wi2Me [Lampropulos] = that manage the connection to several Community

> >    Networks from the = client's side.  These = applications have shown to

> >    improve the client = performance compared to a single-Community Network

> >    client.

> >

> >    On the other hand, = transport protocols inside a multiple hop wireless

> >    mesh network are = likely to suffer performance degradation for

> >    multiple reasons, = e.g., hidden terminal problem, unnecessary delays

> >    on the TCP ACK = clocking that decrease the throughout or route

> >    changing = [Hanbali].  There are some = options for network

> >    configuration.  The implementation of an = easy-to-adopt solution for

> >    TCP over mesh = networks may be implemented from two different

> >    perspectives.  One way is to use a TCP-proxy = to transparently deal

> >    with the different = impairments (RFC 3135 [RFC3135]).  = Another way is

> >    to adopt end-to-end = solutions for monitoring the connection delay so

> >    that the receiver = adapts the TCP reception window (rwnd)

> = >    [Castignani_c].  Similarly, the ACK Congestion = Control (ACKCC)

> >    mechanism RFC 5690 = [RFC5690] could deal with TCP-ACK clocking

> >    impairments due to = inappropriate delay on ACK packets.  ACKCC

> >    compensates in an = end-to-end fashion the throughput degradation due

> >    to the effect of = media contention as well as the unfairness

> >    experienced by = multiple uplink TCP flows in a congested Wi-Fi access.

> >

> > = 5.2.1.  Services provided = by Alternative Networks

> >

> >    This section = provides an overview of the services between hosts

> >    inside the = network.  They can be = divided into Intranet services,

> = >    = connecting hosts between them, and Internet services, connecting = to

> >    nodes outside the = network.

> >

> > 5.2.1.1.  Intranet services

> >

> >    Intranet services = can include, but are not limited to:

> = >

> >    - VoIP (e.g. with = SIP)

> >

> >    - Remote desktop = (e.g. using my home computer and my Internet

> >    connection when I = am on holidays in a village).

> >

> >    - FTP file sharing = (e.g. distribution of Linux software).

> = >

> >    - P2P file = sharing.

> >

> >

> = >

> >

> > Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;        [Page 22]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        = January 2015

> >

> >

> >    - Public video = cameras.

> >

> >    - DNS.

> >

> >    - Online games = servers.

> >

> >    - Jabber instant = messaging.

> >

> >    - IRC chat.

> >

> >    - Weather = stations.

> >

> >    - NTP.

> >

> >    - Network = monitoring.

> >

> >    - Videoconferencing = / streaming.

> >

> >    - Radio = streaming.

> >

> > 5.2.1.2.  Access to the Internet

> >

> > = 5.2.1.2.1.  Web browsing = proxies

> >

> >    A number of = federated proxies MAY provide web browsing service for

> >    the users.  Other services (file sharing, = skype, etc.) are not

> >    usually allowed in = many Alternative Networks due to bandwidth

> >    limitations.

> >

> > = 5.2.1.2.2.  Use of = VPNs

> >

> >    Some = "micro-ISPs" may use the network as a backhaul for = providing

> >    Internet access, = setting up VPNs from the client to a machine with

> >    Internet = access.

> >

> > 5.3.  Topology

> >

> >    Alternative = Networks follow different topology patterns, as studied

> >    in [Vega].

> >

> >    Regularly rural = areas in these networks are connected through long-

> >    distance links (the = so-called community mesh approach) which in turn

> >    convey the Internet = connection to relevant organisations or

> = >    = institutions.  In = contrast, in urban areas, users tend to share and

> >    require mobile = access.  Since these areas = are also likely to be

> >    covered by = commercial ISPs, the provision of wireless access by

> >    Virtual Operators = like [Fon] may constitute a way to extend the user

> >

> = >

> >

> >

> > = Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;        [Page 23]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        = January 2015

> >

> >

> >    capacity (or gain = connection) to the network.  = Other proposals like

> >    Virtual Public = Networks [Sathiaseelan_a] can also extend the service.

> >

> >    As in the case of = main Internet Service Providers in France,

> >    Community Networks = for urban areas are conceived as a set of APs

> >    sharing a common = SSID among the clients favouring the nomadic access.

> >    For users in = France, ISPs promise to cause a little impact on their

> >    service agreement = when the shared network service is activated on

> >    clients' APs.  Nowadays, millions of APs are = deployed around the

> >    country performing = services of nomadism and 3G offloading, however as

> >    some studies = demonstrate, at walking speed, there is a fair chance of

> >    performing file = transfers [Castignani_a], [Castignani_b].  Scenarios

> >    studied in France = and Luxembourg show that the density of APs in

> >    urban areas (mainly = in downtown and residential areas) is quite big

> >    and from different = ISPs.  Moreover, performed = studies reveal that

> >    aggregating = available networks can be beneficial to the client by

> >    using an = application that manages the best connection among the

> >    different = networks.  For improving = the scanning process (or topology

> = >    = recognition), which consumes the 90% of the = connection/reconnection

> >    process to the = Community Network, the client may implement several

> >    techniques for = selecting the best AP [Castignani_c].

> = >

> > 6.  Acknowledgements

> >

> >    This work has been = partially funded by the CONFINE European

> = >    = Commission Project (FP7 - 288535).

> >

> >    The editor and the = authors of this document wish to thank the

> >    following = individuals who have participated in the drafting, review,

> >    and discussion of = this memo:

> >

> >    Paul M.  Aoki, Roger Baig, Jaume = Barcelo, Steven G.  Huter, = Rohan

> >    Mahy, Rute Sofia, = Dirk Trossen.

> >

> >    A special thanks to = the GAIA Working Group chairs Matt Ford and

>

> = s/Matt/Mat/

>

> >    Arjuna Sathiaseelan = for their support and guidance.

> = >

> > 7.  Contributing Authors

> >

> = >

> >

> >

> = >

> >

> >

> = >

> >

> >

> = >

> >

> >

> > = Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;        [Page 24]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        = January 2015

> >

> >

> >    Ioannis = Komnios

> >    Democritus = University of Thrace

> >    Department of = Electrical and Computer Engineering

> = >    Kimmeria = University Campus

> >    Xanthi 67100

> >    Greece

> >

> >    Phone: = +306945406585

> >    Email: = ikomnios@ee.duth.gr

> >

> >

> >    Steve Song

> >    Village Telco = Limited

> >

> >

> >    Halifax

> >    Canada

> >

> >    Phone:

> >    Email: = stevesong@nsrc.org

> >

> >

> >    David Lloyd = Johnson

> >    Meraka, CSIR

> >    15 Lower Hope = St

> >    Rosebank 7700

> >    South Africa

> >

> >    Phone: +27 (0)21 = 658 2740

> >    Email: = djohnson@csir.co.za

> >

> > 8.  = IANA Considerations

> >

> >    This memo includes = no request to IANA.

> >

> > 9.  = Security Considerations

> = >

> >    No security issues = have been identified for this document.

> = >

> > 10.  References

> >

> > = 10.1.  Normative = References

> >

> >

> = >

> >

> >

> = >

> >

> >

> = >

> > Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;        [Page 25]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        = January 2015

> >

> >

> >    = [IEEE.802-11A.1999]

> >       &nbs= p;       "Information = technology - Telecommunications and

> = >       &nbs= p;       inf= ormation exchange between systems - Local and

> >       &nbs= p;       metropolitan area networks = - Specific requirements - Part

> >       &nbs= p;       11: Wireless LAN Medium = Access Control (MAC) and Physical

> = >       &nbs= p;       Layer (PHY) specifications = - High-speed Physical Layer in

> >       &nbs= p;       the 5 GHZ Band", IEEE = Standard 802.11a, Sept 1999,

> >       &nbs= p;       = <http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/

> >       &nbs= p;       = download/802.11a-1999.pdf>.

> = >

> >    = [IEEE.802-11AF.2013]

> >       &nbs= p;       "Information = technology - Telecommunications and

> = >       &nbs= p;       information exchange = between systems - Local and

> >       &nbs= p;       metropolitan area networks = - Specific requirements - Part

> >       &nbs= p;       11: Wireless LAN Medium = Access Control (MAC) and Physical

> = >       &nbs= p;       Layer (PHY) specifications = - Amendment 5: Television White

> = >       &nbs= p;       Spaces (TVWS) = Operation", IEEE Standard 802.11af, Oct

> >       &nbs= p;       2009, = <http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/

> >       &nbs= p;       = download/802.11af-2013.pdf>.

> = >

> >    = [IEEE.802-11B.1999]

> >       &nbs= p;       "Information = technology - Telecommunications and

> = >       &nbs= p;       information exchange = between systems - Local and

> >       &nbs= p;       metropolitan area networks = - Specific requirements - Part

> >       &nbs= p;       11: Wireless LAN Medium = Access Control (MAC) and Physical

> = >       &nbs= p;       Layer (PHY) specifications = - Higher-Speed Physical Layer

> >       &nbs= p;       Extension in the 2.4 GHz = Band", IEEE Standard 802.11b,

> = >       &nbs= p;       Sept 1999, = <http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/

> >       &nbs= p;       = download/802.11b-1999.pdf>.

> = >

> >    = [IEEE.802-11G.2003]

> >       &nbs= p;       "Information = technology - Telecommunications and

> = >       &nbs= p;       information exchange = between systems - Local and

> >       &nbs= p;       metropolitan area networks = - Specific requirements - Part

> >       &nbs= p;       11: Wireless LAN Medium = Access Control (MAC) and Physical

> = >       &nbs= p;       Layer (PHY) specifications = - Amendment 4: Further Higher

> >       &nbs= p;       Data Rate Extension in the = 2.4 GHz Band", IEEE Standard

> = >       &nbs= p;       802.11g, Jun 2003, = <http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/

> >       &nbs= p;       = download/802.11g-2003.pdf>.

> = >

> >

> >

> = >

> >

> >

> = >

> >

> >

> = >

> >

> >

> > = Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;        [Page 26]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        = January 2015

> >

> >

> >    = [IEEE.802-11N.2009]

> >       &nbs= p;       "Information = technology - Telecommunications and

> = >       &nbs= p;       information exchange = between systems - Local and

> >       &nbs= p;       metropolitan area networks = - Specific requirements - Part

> >       &nbs= p;       11: Wireless LAN Medium = Access Control (MAC) and Physical

> = >       &nbs= p;       Layer (PHY) specifications = - Amendment 5: Enhancements for

> = >       &nbs= p;       Higher Throughput", = IEEE Standard 802.11n, Oct 2009,

> = >       &nbs= p;       = <http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/

> >       &nbs= p;       = download/802.11n-2009.pdf>.

> = >

> >    = [IEEE.802-16.2008]

> >       &nbs= p;       "Information = technology - Telecommunications and

> = >       &nbs= p;       information exchange = between systems - Broadband wireless

> = >       &nbs= p;       metropolitan area networks = (MANs) - IEEE Standard for Air

> >       &nbs= p;       Interface for Broadband = Wireless Access Systems", IE

> > = EE

> >       &nbs= p;       Standard 802.16, Jun = 2008,

> >       &nbs= p;       = <http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/

> >       &nbs= p;       = download/802.16-2012.pdf>.

> = >

> >    = [IEEE.802-22.2011]

> >       &nbs= p;       "Information = technology - Telecommunications and

> = >       &nbs= p;       information exchange = between systems - Local and

> >       &nbs= p;       metropolitan area networks = - Specific requirements - Part

> >       &nbs= p;       22: Cognitive Wireless RAN = Medium Access Control (MAC) and

> = >       &nbs= p;       Physical Layer (PHY) = specifications: Policies and

> >       &nbs= p;       procedures for operation = in the TV Bands", IEEE Standard

> = >       &nbs= p;       802.22, Jul 2011, = <http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/

> >       &nbs= p;       = download/802.11af-2013.pdf>.

> = >

> >    [RFC1918]  Rekhter, Y., Moskowitz, R., = Karrenberg, D., Groot, G., and

> >       &nbs= p;       E. Lear, "Address = Allocation for Private Internets", BCP

> >       &nbs= p;       5, RFC 1918, February = 1996.

> >

> >    [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words = for use in RFCs to Indicate

> >       &nbs= p;       Requirement Levels", = BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

> >

> >    [RFC2328]  Moy, J., "OSPF Version = 2", STD 54, RFC 2328, April 1998.

> = >

> >    [RFC3135]  Border, J., Kojo, M., Griner, = J., Montenegro, G., and Z.

> >       &nbs= p;       Shelby, "Performance = Enhancing Proxies Intended to

> >       &nbs= p;       Mitigate Link-Related = Degradations", RFC 3135, June 2001.

> = >

> >    [RFC3626]  Clausen, T. and P. Jacquet, = "Optimized Link State Routing

> = >       &nbs= p;       Protocol (OLSR)", RFC = 3626, October 2003.

> >

> >    [RFC4271]  Rekhter, Y., Li, T., and S. = Hares, "A Border Gateway

> >       &nbs= p;       Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", = RFC 4271, January 2006.

> >

> >

> = >

> >

> > Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;        [Page 27]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        = January 2015

> >

> >

> >    [RFC5690]  Floyd, S., Arcia, A., Ros, D., = and J. Iyengar, "Adding

> >       &nbs= p;       Acknowledgement Congestion = Control to TCP", RFC 5690,

> = >       &nbs= p;       February 2010.

> >

> >    [RFC6297]  Welzl, M. and D. Ros, "A = Survey of Lower-than-Best-Effort

> = >      =        &nbs= p; Transport Protocols", RFC 6297, June 2011.

> >

> > = 10.2.  Informative = References

> >

> >    [Abolhasan]

> >       &nbs= p;       Abolhasan, M., Hagelstein, = B., and J. Wang, "Real-world

> = >       &nbs= p;       performance of current = proactive multi-hop mesh

> >       &nbs= p;       protocols", In = Communications, 2009. APCC 2009. 15th Asia-

> >       &nbs= p;       Pacific Conference on (pp. = 44-47). IEEE. , 2009.

> >

> >    [Airjaldi]

> >       &nbs= p;       Rural Broadband (RBB) Pvt. = Ltd., Airjaldi., "Airjaldi

> = >       &nbs= p;       service", Airjaldi = web page, www.airjaldi.net , 2015.

> = >

> >    [Avonts]   Avonts, J., Braem, B., = and C. Blondia, "A Questionnaire

> = >       &nbs= p;       based Examination of = Community Networks", Proceedings

> = >       &nbs= p;       Wireless and Mobile = Computing, Networking and

> >       &nbs= p;       Communications (WiMob), = 2013 IEEE 8th International

> >       &nbs= p;       Conference on (pp. 8-15) , = 2013.

> >

> >    [Bernardi]

> >       &nbs= p;       Bernardi, B., Buneman, P., = and M. Marina, "Tegola tiered

> = >       &nbs= p;       mesh network testbed in = rural Scotland", Proceedings of

> = >       &nbs= p;       the 2008 ACM workshop on = Wireless networks and systems for

> = >       &nbs= p;       developing regions = (WiNS-DR '08). ACM, New York, NY, USA,

> = >       &nbs= p;       9-16 , 2008.

> >

> >    [Braem]    Braem, B., Baig = Vinas, R., Kaplan, A., Neumann, A., Vilata

> >       &nbs= p;       i Balaguer, I., Tatum, B., = Matson, M., Blondia, C., Barz,

> >       &nbs= p;       C., Rogge, H., Freitag, = F., Navarro, L., Bonicioli, J.,

> = >       &nbs= p;       Papathanasiou, S., and P. = Escrich, "A case for research

> = >       &nbs= p;       with and on = community networks", ACM SIGCOMM Computer

> >       &nbs= p;       Communication Review vol. = 43, no. 3, pp. 68-73, 2013.

> >

> >    = [Castignani_a]

> >       &nbs= p;       Castignani, G., Loiseau, = L., and N. Montavont, "An

> >       &nbs= p;       Evaluation of IEEE 802.11 = Community Networks Deployments",

> = >       &nbs= p;       Information Networking = (ICOIN), 2011 International

> >       &nbs= p;       Conference on , vol., no., = pp.498,503, 26-28 , 2011.

> >

> >

> = >

> >

> >

> = >

> >

> > Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;        [Page 28]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        = January 2015

> >

> >

> >    = [Castignani_b]

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> >       &nbs= p;       Castignani, G., = Arcia-Moret, A., and N. Montavont, "A

> >       &nbs= p;       study of the discovery = process in 802.11 networks",

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> >

> >    [DAE]      = European Commission, EC., "A Digital Agenda for = Europe",

> >       &nbs= p;       Communication from the = Commission of 19 May 2010 to the

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> >       &nbs= p;       and Social Committee and = the Committee of the Regions - A

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> >       &nbs= p;       and C. Fonda, "Very = Long Distance Wi-Fi Networks", NSDR

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> >    [Fon]      Fon = Wireless Limited, Fon., "What is Fon", Fon web page,

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> >       &nbs= p;       K. Wehrle, = "Collaborative municipal Wi-Fi networks-

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> >    [IEEE]     Institute of = Electrical and Electronics Engineers, IEEE,

> >       &nbs= p;       "IEEE Standards = association", 2012.

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> >

> >    [Komnios]  Komnios, I., Sathiaseelan, A., = and J. Crowcroft, "LEDBAT

> >       &nbs= p;       performance in subpacket = regimes", IEEE/IFIP WONS,

> >       &nbs= p;       Austria, April 2014 , = 2014.

> >

> >    [Lampropulos]

> >       &nbs= p;       Lampropulos, A., = Castignani, G., Blanc, A., and N.

> = >       &nbs= p;       Montavont, "Wi2Me: A = Mobile Sensing Platform for Wireless

> = >       &nbs= p;       Heterogeneous = Networks", 32nd International Conference on

> >       &nbs= p;       Distributed Computing = Systems Workshops (ICDCS Workshops),

> = >       &nbs= p;       2012, pp. 108-113 , = 2012.

> >

> >    [Lowenstedt]

> >       &nbs= p;       Huggler, J., = "Lowenstedt Villagers Built Own Fiber Optic

> >       &nbs= p;       Network", The = Telegraph, 03 Jun 2014, available at

> = >       &nbs= p;       = http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/

> >       &nbs= p;       germany/10871150/

> >       &nbs= p;       = German-villagers-set-up-their-own-broadband-network.html ,

> >       &nbs= p;       2014.

> >

> >    [Mexican]  Varma, S., "Lowenstedt = Villagers Built Own Fiber Optic

> = >       &nbs= p;       Network", The Times = of India, 27 Aug 2013, available at

> = >       &nbs= p;       = http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/rest-of-world/

> >       &nbs= p;       = Ignored-by-big-companies-Mexican-village-creates-its-own-

> >       &nbs= p;       = mobile-service/articleshow/22094736.cms , 2013.

> >

> >    [Neumann]  Neumann, A., Lopez, E., and L. = Navarro, "An evaluation of

> = >       &nbs= p;       bmx6 for community = wireless networks", In Wireless and

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> = >       &nbs= p;       2012 IEEE 8th = International Conference on (pp. 651-658).

> >       &nbs= p;       IEEE. , 2012.

> >

> >    [PAWS]     Sathiaseelan, = A., Crowcroft, J., Goulden, M.,

> = >       &nbs= p;       Greiffenhagen, C., = Mortier, R., Fairhurst, G., and D.

> = >       &nbs= p;       McAuley, "Public = Access WiFi Service (PAWS)", Digital

> >       &nbs= p;       Economy All Hands Meeting, = Aberdeen , Oct 2012.

> >

> >    = [Pietrosemoli]

> >       &nbs= p;       Pietrosemoli, E., Zennaro, = M., and C. Fonda, "Low cost

> = >       &nbs= p;       carrier independent = telecommunications infrastructure", In

> >       &nbs= p;       proc. 4th Global = Information Infrastructure and Networking

> >        &nbs= p;      Symposium, Choroni, = Venezuela , 2012.

> >

> >    [Rendon]   Rendon, A., Ludena, P., = and A. Martinez Fernandez,

> >       &nbs= p;       "Tecnologias de la = Informacion y las Comunicaciones para

> = >       &nbs= p;       zonas rurales Aplicacion a = la atencion de salud en paises

> >       &nbs= p;       en desarrollo", = CYTED. Programa Iberoamericano de Ciencia

> >       &nbs= p;       y Tecnologia para el = Desarrollo , 2011.

> >

> >

> = >

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> >

> >

> >    [Ros]      Ros, D. = and M. Welzl, "Assessing LEDBAT's Delay Impact",

> >       &nbs= p;       Communications Letters, = IEEE , vol.17, no.5, pp.1044,1047,

> = >       &nbs= p;       May 2013 , 2013.

> >

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> >       &nbs= p;       "Metropolitan Wi-Fi = Research Network at the Los Angeles

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> >    = [Sathiaseelan_a]

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> >       &nbs= p;       Papadimitriou, P., and J. = Crowcroft, "Virtual Public

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> = >       &nbs= p;       Second = European Workshop on (pp. 1-6). IEEE. , 2013.

> >

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> >

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> > = Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;        [Page 31]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        = January 2015

> >

> >

> >    [WSIS]     International = Telecommunications Union, ITU, "Declaration

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> = >     =        &nbs= p;  Information Society, 2003, at = http://www.itu.int/wsis,

> >       &nbs= p;       accessed 12 January 2004. = , Dec 2013.

> >

> >    [Zennaro]  Zennaro, M., Fonda, C., = Pietrosemoli, E., Muyepa, A.,

> >       &nbs= p;       Okay, S., Flickenger, R., = and S. Radicella, "On a long

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> = >       &nbs= p;       International Conference = on Open Access, Lilongwe, Malawi

> = >       &nbs= p;       , Nov 2008.

> >

> > = Authors' Addresses

> >

> >    Jose Saldana = (editor)

> >    University of = Zaragoza

> >    Dpt. IEC Ada Byron = Building

> >    Zaragoza  50018

> >    Spain

> >

> >    Phone: +34 976 762 = 698

> >    Email: = jsaldana@unizar.es

> >

> >

> >    Andres = Arcia-Moret

> >    Universidad de Los = Andes

> >    Facultad de = Ingenieria. Sector La Hechicera

> = >    = Merida  5101

> >    Venezuela

> >

> >    Phone: +58 274 = 2402811

> >    Email: = andres.arcia@ula.ve

> >

> >

> >    Bart Braem

> >    iMinds

> >    Gaston Crommenlaan = 8 (bus 102)

> >    Gent  9050

> >    Belgium

> >

> >    Phone: +32 3 265 38 = 64

> >    Email: = bart.braem@iminds.be

> >

> >

> = >

> >

> >

> = >

> >

> >

> = >

> > Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;        [Page 32]

> > Internet-Draft       = Alternative Network Deployments        = January 2015

> >

> >

> >    Leandro = Navarro

> >    U. Politecnica = Catalunya

> >    Jordi Girona, 1-3, = D6

> >    Barcelona  08034

> >    Spain

> >

> >    Phone: +34 = 934016807

> >    Email: = leandro@ac.upc.edu

> >

> >

> >    Ermanno = Pietrosemoli

> >    ICTP

> >    Via Beirut 7

> >    Trieste  34151

> >    Italy

> >

> >    Phone: +39 040 2240 = 471

> >    Email: = ermanno@ictp.it

> >

> >

> >    Carlos = Rey-Moreno

> >    University of the = Western Cape

> >    Robert Sobukwe = road

> >    Bellville  7535

> >    South Africa

> >

> >    Phone: = 0027219592562

> >    Email: = crey-moreno@uwc.ac.za

> >

> >

> >    Arjuna = Sathiaseelan

> >    University of = Cambridge

> >    15 JJ Thomson = Avenue

> >    Cambridge  CB30FD

> >    United = Kingdom

> >

> >    Phone: +44 (0)1223 = 763781

> >    Email: = arjuna.sathiaseelan@cl.cam.ac.uk

> = >

> >

> >    Marco Zennaro

> >    Abdus Salam = ICTP

> >    Strada Costiera = 11

> >    Trieste  34100

> >    Italy

> >

> >    Phone: +39 040 2240 = 406

> >    Email: = mzennaro@ictp.it

> >

> >

> = >

> > Saldana, et al.       &nbs= p;   Expires July 25, 2015       &nbs= p;        [Page 33]

>

> = Mat

------=_NextPart_000_0001_01D04485.3B93B760-- From nobody Mon Feb 9 23:25:32 2015 Return-Path: X-Original-To: gaia@ietfa.amsl.com Delivered-To: gaia@ietfa.amsl.com Received: from localhost (ietfa.amsl.com [127.0.0.1]) by ietfa.amsl.com (Postfix) with ESMTP id 69DA21A0007 for ; Mon, 9 Feb 2015 23:25:26 -0800 (PST) X-Virus-Scanned: amavisd-new at amsl.com X-Spam-Flag: NO X-Spam-Score: 3.298 X-Spam-Level: *** X-Spam-Status: No, score=3.298 tagged_above=-999 required=5 tests=[BAYES_50=0.8, GB_AFFORDABLE=1, GB_I_LETTER=-2, GB_SUMOF=1, HELO_EQ_SE=0.35, HTML_MESSAGE=0.001, HTML_TAG_BALANCE_BODY=1.157, J_BACKHAIR_11=1, T_RP_MATCHES_RCVD=-0.01] autolearn=no Received: from mail.ietf.org ([4.31.198.44]) by localhost (ietfa.amsl.com [127.0.0.1]) (amavisd-new, port 10024) with ESMTP id tr6Aff0N0vV9 for ; Mon, 9 Feb 2015 23:24:50 -0800 (PST) Received: from mxi.ltu.se (mxi.ltu.se [IPv6:2001:6b0:10:42::42:23]) (using TLSv1.2 with cipher ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384 (256/256 bits)) (No client certificate requested) by ietfa.amsl.com (Postfix) with ESMTPS id 3E6CA1A0060 for ; Mon, 9 Feb 2015 23:24:49 -0800 (PST) Received: from STAEX2.staff.ltu.se (STAEX2.staff.ltu.se [130.240.20.62]) by mxi.ltu.se (8.14.4/8.14.4) with ESMTP id t1A7Oidj047154 (version=TLSv1/SSLv3 cipher=AES256-SHA bits=256 verify=OK); Tue, 10 Feb 2015 08:24:44 +0100 Received: from STAEX1.staff.ltu.se (130.240.20.61) by STAEX2.staff.ltu.se (130.240.20.62) with Microsoft SMTP Server (TLS) id 15.0.1044.25; Tue, 10 Feb 2015 08:24:43 +0100 Received: from STAEX1.staff.ltu.se ([fe80::e879:b47c:f6f9:2eaf]) by STAEX1.staff.ltu.se ([fe80::e879:b47c:f6f9:2eaf%18]) with mapi id 15.00.1044.021; Tue, 10 Feb 2015 08:24:44 +0100 From: Maria Uden To: Jose Saldana , "gaia@irtf.org" , "'Matthew Ford'" Thread-Topic: [gaia] New Version Notification for draft-manyfolks-gaia-community-networks-02.txt. Sharper identification Thread-Index: AdBEe5GDke+Zi097T4aRmmrcN/xg8QAhfjiA Date: Tue, 10 Feb 2015 07:24:43 +0000 Message-ID: <84a183fbb8fe4537bb138cafef3dc04b@STAEX1.staff.ltu.se> References: <000001d0447c$d9b781a0$8d2684e0$@unizar.es> In-Reply-To: <000001d0447c$d9b781a0$8d2684e0$@unizar.es> Accept-Language: sv-SE, en-US Content-Language: en-US X-MS-Has-Attach: X-MS-TNEF-Correlator: x-ms-exchange-transport-fromentityheader: Hosted x-originating-ip: [130.240.20.29] Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="_000_84a183fbb8fe4537bb138cafef3dc04bSTAEX1staffltuse_" MIME-Version: 1.0 Archived-At: Subject: Re: [gaia] New Version Notification for draft-manyfolks-gaia-community-networks-02.txt. Sharper identification X-BeenThere: gaia@irtf.org X-Mailman-Version: 2.1.15 Precedence: list List-Id: Global Access to the Internet for All List-Unsubscribe: , List-Archive: List-Post: List-Help: List-Subscribe: , X-List-Received-Date: Tue, 10 Feb 2015 07:25:26 -0000 --_000_84a183fbb8fe4537bb138cafef3dc04bSTAEX1staffltuse_ Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable The classification is interesting as information but, is it not only exampl= es, after all? Or, what is the purpose? An analogy: My experience as teache= r is that the more detailed descriptions the more the students will ask - b= ecause each detail opens questions. Like the fractals one sees in these nic= e maths/science pictures. They will feel insecure and instead of getting to= action themselves wonder if they can really do it, as it is so defined int= o details what "it shall be about". Cheers, Maria From: gaia [mailto:gaia-bounces@irtf.org] On Behalf Of Jose Saldana Sent: den 9 februari 2015 16:27 To: gaia@irtf.org; 'Matthew Ford' Subject: Re: [gaia] New Version Notification for draft-manyfolks-gaia-commu= nity-networks-02.txt. Sharper identification Hi all, Mat has sent this suggestion: > A general observation: I find the taxonomical aspect a bit lacking at pre= sent. I would > like to have a sharper identification of the characteristics of identifie= d alternative > network types that distinguishes them. Is it the commercial model? Is it = the > centralisation or decentralisation of network management? The description= s are fine > as far as they go, but if there's something unique about the different ty= pes that > clearly distinguishes them it would help to call that out better. Maybe a= matrix of the > various identified types of network and some of the important characteris= tics would > be appropriate. This is the current classification (section 2): 2.1. Community Networks 2.1.1. Free Networks 2.2. Wireless Internet Service Providers WISPs 2.3. Shared infrastructure model 2.4. Crowdshared approaches, led by the people and third party stakeh= olders 2.5. Testbeds for research purposes Mat, are you suggesting to include a table like this?: | Commercial model | centralization | technologies | typical = | | | | | scenarios= | +------------------+----------------+--------------+----------= -+ CNs | | | | = | WISPx | | | | = | Shared inf | | | | = | Crowdshared | | | | = | Testbeds | | | | = | Which would be the titles of the columns? Are these ones enough? Comments and ideas will be welcome. Thanks, Jose > -----Mensaje original----- > De: Matthew Ford [mailto:ford@isoc.org] > Enviado el: viernes, 06 de febrero de 2015 12:57 > Para: Jose Saldana > CC: gaia@irtf.org > Asunto: Re: [gaia] New Version Notification for draft-manyfolks-gaia-comm= unity- > networks-02.txt > > Hi Jose, > > > On 21 Jan 2015, at 17:21, Jose Saldana > wrote: > > > > Hi all, > > > > We have just updated (and uploaded) a new version of the "Manyfolks dra= ft": > Alternative Network Deployments. Taxonomy and characterization. > > > > URL: http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-manyfolks-gai= a-community- > networks-02.txt > > > > 8< snip >8 > > > > > If you want to have a look to it and send your comments, it would be fi= ne. > > > > Sure! > > A general observation: I find the taxonomical aspect a bit lacking at pre= sent. I would > like to have a sharper identification of the characteristics of identifie= d alternative > network types that distinguishes them. Is it the commercial model? Is it = the > centralisation or decentralisation of network management? The description= s are fine > as far as they go, but if there's something unique about the different ty= pes that > clearly distinguishes them it would help to call that out better. Maybe a= matrix of the > various identified types of network and some of the important characteris= tics would > be appropriate. > > Some more detailed comments inline: > > > > > > > > > Global Access to the Internet for All J. Saldana, Ed= . > > Internet-Draft University of Zaragoz= a > > Intended status: Informational A. Arcia-More= t > > Expires: July 25, 2015 Universidad de Los Ande= s > > B. Brae= m > > iMind= s > > L. Navarr= o > > U. Politecnica Cataluny= a > > E. Pietrosemol= i > > ICT= P > > C. Rey-Moren= o > > University of the Western Cap= e > > A. Sathiaseela= n > > University of Cambridg= e > >