]>
The Asynchronous Remote Key Generation (ARKG) algorithm
Yubico
Kungsgatan 44
Stockholm
SE
emil@emlun.se
Yubico
ve7jtb@ve7jtb.com
Security
CFRG
KDF
Asynchronous Remote Key Generation (ARKG) is an abstract algorithm
that enables delegation of asymmetric public key generation without giving access to the corresponding private keys.
This capability enables a variety of applications:
a user agent can generate pseudonymous public keys to prevent tracking;
a message sender can generate ephemeral recipient public keys to enhance forward secrecy;
two paired authentication devices can each have their own private keys while each can register public keys on behalf of the other.
This document provides three main contributions:
a specification of the generic ARKG algorithm using abstract primitives;
a set of formulae for instantiating the abstract primitives using concrete primitives;
and an initial set of fully specified concrete ARKG instances.
We expect that additional instances will be defined in the future.
About This Document
Status information for this document may be found at .
Source for this draft and an issue tracker can be found at
.
Introduction
Asymmetric cryptography, also called public key cryptography, is a fundamental component of much of modern information security.
However, even the flexibility of asymmetric cryptosystems is not always enough for all applications.
For the sake of privacy and forward secrecy it may be necessary to frequently generate new keys,
but it is not always feasible for the holder of the private keys to be available whenever a new key pair is needed.
For example, this is often the case when using a hardware security device to hold private keys,
where the device may be detached or locked at the time a new key pair is needed.
The Asynchronous Remote Key Generation (ARKG) algorithm
enables the holder of private keys to delegate generation of public keys without giving access to the corresponding private keys.
This enables a public key consumer to autonomously generate public keys whenever one is needed,
while the private key holder can later derive the corresponding private key using a "key handle" generated along with the public key.
The algorithm consists of three procedures:
(1) the delegating party generates a seed pair and emits the public seed to a subordinate party,
(2) the subordinate party uses the public seed to generate a public key and a key handle on behalf of the delegating party, and
(3) the delegating party uses the key handle and the private seed
to derive the private key corresponding to the public key generated by procedure (2).
Procedure (1) is performed once, and procedures (2) and (3) may be repeated any number of times with the same seed pair.
The required cryptographic primitives are a public key blinding scheme, a key encapsulation mechanism (KEM),
a key derivation function (KDF) and a message authentication code (MAC) scheme.
Both conventional primitives and quantumresistant alternatives exist that meet these requirements.
Some motivating use cases of ARKG include:

Efficient singleuse signing keys.
The European Union has proposed a digital identity system which, in order to protect users' privacy,
needs a unique key pair for each authentication signature.
In online usage the system could relatively easily create a key on demand,
submit it to a certification authority to have a singleuse certificate issued for that key,
and then submit that certificate with an authentication signature to a third party to access a service.
However, the proposed system also includes offline use cases:
A user might for example need to use the system in a location with poor or no internet connectivity
to present a digital driver's license or authorize a payment.
For this, the system may need to preemptively generate a large amount of singleuse certificates to be used offline.
One candidate implementation under evaluation to provide signing and key management for this system
is the W3C Web Authentication API [WebAuthn] (WebAuthn),
which requires a user gesture whenever a WebAuthn operation is invoked.
A WebAuthnbased implementation of the proposed digital identity system
could use ARKG to preemptively generate key pairs for offline use without the need to prompt for a user gesture for each key pair generated.

Enhanced forward secrecy for encrypted messaging.
For example, section 8.5.4 of RFC 9052 defines COSE representations for encrypted messages and notes that
"Since COSE is designed for a storeandforward environment rather than an online environment,
[...] forward secrecy (see ) is not achievable. A static key will always be used for the receiver of the COSE object."
Applications could work around this limitation by exchanging a large number of keys in advance,
but that number limits how many messages can be sent before another such exchange is needed.
This also requires the sender to allocate storage space for the keys,
which may be challenging to support in constrained hardware.
ARKG could enable the sender to generate ephemeral recipient public keys on demand.
This may enhance forward secrecy if the sender keeps the ARKG public seed secret,
since each recipient key pair is used to encrypt only one message.

Generating additional public keys as backup keys.
For example, the W3C Web Authentication API [WebAuthn] (WebAuthn) generates a new key pair for each account on each web site.
This makes it difficult for users to set up a backup authenticator,
because each time a key pair is created for the primary authenticator,
another key pair also needs to be created for the backup authenticator, which may be stored in a safe but inconvenient location.
ARKG could enable the primary authenticator to also generate a public key for a paired backup authenticator
whenever it generates a key pair for itself,
allowing the user to set up the pairing once
and then leave the backup authenticator in safe storage until the primary authenticator is lost.
Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL
NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED",
"MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as
described in BCP 14 when, and only when, they
appear in all capitals, as shown here.
Notation
The following notation is used throughout this document:

The symbol  represents octet string concatenation.

When literal text strings are to be interpreted as octet strings,
they are encoded using UTF8.

Elliptic curve operations are written in multiplicative notation:
* denotes point multiplication, i.e., the curve group operation;
^ denotes point exponentiation, i.e., repeated point multiplication of the base with itself;
and + denotes scalar addition modulo the curve order.

Random(min_inc, max_exc) represents a cryptographically secure random integer
greater than or equal to min_inc and strictly less than max_exc.
The Asynchronous Remote Key Generation (ARKG) algorithm
The ARKG algorithm consists of three functions, each performed by one of two participants:
the delegating party or the subordinate party.
The delegating party generates an ARKG seed pair and emits the public seed to the subordinate party
while keeping the private seed secret.
The subordinate party can then use the public seed to generate derived public keys and key handles,
and the delegating party can use the private seed and a key handle to derive the corresponding private key.
The following subsections define the abstract instance parameters used to construct the three ARKG functions,
followed by the definitions of the three ARKG functions.
Instance parameters
ARKG is composed of a suite of other algorithms.
The parameters of an ARKG instance are:

BL: An asymmetric key blinding scheme , consisting of:

Function BLGenerateKeypair() > (pk, sk): Generate a blinding key pair.
No input.
Output consists of a blinding public key pk and a blinding secret key sk.

Function BLBlindPublicKey(pk, tau) > pk_tau: Deterministically compute a blinded public key.
Input consists of a blinding public key pk and a blinding factor tau.
Output consists of the blinded public key pk_tau.

Function BLBlindSecretKey(sk, tau) > sk_tau: Deterministically compute a blinded secret key.
Input consists of a blinding secret key sk and a blinding factor tau.
Output consists of the blinded secret key sk_tau.

Integer L_bl: The length of the blinding factor tau in octets.
pk and pk_tau are opaque octet strings of arbitrary length.
tau is an opaque octet string of length L_bl.
The representations of sk, sk_tau and L_bl are an undefined implementation detail.
See for definitions of security properties required of the key blinding scheme BL.

KEM: A key encapsulation mechanism, consisting of the functions:

KEMGenerateKeypair() > (pk, sk): Generate a key encapsulation key pair.
No input.
Output consists of public key pk and secret key sk.

KEMEncaps(pk) > (k, c): Generate a key encapsulation.
Input consists of an encapsulation public key pk.
Output consists of a shared secret k and an encapsulation ciphertext c.

KEMDecaps(sk, c) > k: Decapsulate a shared secret.
Input consists of encapsulation secret key sk and encapsulation ciphertext c.
Output consists of the shared secret k on success, or an error otherwise.
pk, k and c are opaque octet strings.
The representation of sk is an undefined implementation detail.
See for definitions of security properties required of the key encapsulation mechanism KEM.

MAC: A message authentication code (MAC) scheme, consisting of:

Function MACTag(k, m) > t: Generate a message authentication tag for a given message using a given key.
Input consists of the shared MAC key k and the message m.
Output consists of the MAC tag t.

Function MACVerify(k, m, t) > { 0, 1 }: Verify a message authentication tag.
Input consists of the shared MAC key k, the message m and the MAC tag t.
Output is 1 if and only if MACTag(k, m) = t.

Integer L_mac: The length of the MAC key k in octets.
k is an opaque octet string of length L_mac.
m and t are opaque octet strings of arbitrary length.
The representation of L_mac is an undefined implementation detail.
See for definitions of security properties required of the message authentication code scheme MAC.

KDF: A variablelength key derivation function with the signature:
KDF(info, ikm, L) > okm
Input consists of a domain separation parameter info, input key material ikm and output length L.
Output consists of output key material okm of length L in octets.
info and ikm are opaque octet strings of arbitrary length.
okm is an opaque octet string of length L.
L is an integer with undefined representation.
See for definitions of security properties required of the key derivation function KDF.
A concrete ARKG instantiation MUST specify the instantiation
of each of the above functions and values.
The output keys of the BL scheme are also the output keys of the ARKG instance as a whole.
For example, if BLBlindPublicKey and BLBlindSecretKey output ECDSA keys,
then the ARKG instance will also output ECDSA keys.
Instantiations MUST satisfy the following compatibility criteria:

The output shared secret k of KEMEncaps and KEMDecaps
is a valid input key material ikm of KDF.

Output key material okm of length L_bl of KDF
is a valid input blinding factor tau of BLBlindPublicKey and BLBlindSecretKey.
It is permissible for some KDF outputs to not be valid blinding factors,
as long as this happens with negligible probability 
see .

Output key material okm of length L_mac of KDF
is a valid input MAC key k of MACTag(k, m) and MACVerify(k, m, t).
It is permissible for some KDF outputs to not be valid MAC keys,
as long as this happens with negligible probability 
see .
We denote a concrete ARKG instance by the pattern ARKGBLKEMMACKDF,
substituting the chosen instantiation for the BL, KEM, MAC and KDF parts.
Note that this pattern cannot in general be unambiguously parsed;
implementations MUST NOT attempt to construct an ARKG instance by parsing such a pattern string.
Concrete ARKG instances MUST always be identified by lookup in a registry of fully specified ARKG instances.
This is to prevent usage of algorithm combinations that may be incompatible or insecure.
The function ARKGGenerateSeed
This function is performed by the delegating party.
The delegating party generates the ARKG seed pair (pk, sk)
and keeps the private seed sk secret, while the public seed pk is provided to the subordinate party.
The subordinate party will then be able to generate public keys on behalf of the delegating party.
(pk, sk)
Options:
BL A key blinding scheme.
KEM A key encapsulation mechanism.
Inputs: None
Output:
(pk, sk) An ARKG seed key pair with public key pk
and private key sk.
The output (pk, sk) is calculated as follows:
(pk_kem, sk_kem) = KEMGenerateKeypair()
(pk_bl, sk_bl) = BLGenerateKeypair()
pk = (pk_kem, pk_bl)
sk = (sk_kem, sk_bl)
]]>
The function ARKGDerivePublicKey
This function is performed by the subordinate party, which holds the ARKG public seed pk = (pk_kem, pk_bl).
The resulting public key pk' can be provided to external parties to use in asymmetric cryptography protocols,
and the resulting key handle kh can be used by the delegating party to derive the private key corresponding to pk'.
This function may be invoked any number of times with the same public seed,
in order to generate any number of public keys.
(pk', kh)
Options:
BL A key blinding scheme.
KEM A key encapsulation mechanism.
MAC A MAC scheme.
KDF A key derivation function.
L_bl The length in octets of the blinding factor tau
of the key blinding scheme BL.
L_mac The length in octets of the MAC key
of the MAC scheme MAC.
Inputs:
pk_kem A key encapsulation public key.
pk_bl A key blinding public key.
info Optional context and application specific
information (can be a zerolength string).
Output:
pk' A blinded public key.
kh A key handle for deriving the blinded
secret key sk' corresponding to pk'.
The output (pk, sk) is calculated as follows:
(k, c) = KEMEncaps(pk_kem)
tau = KDF("arkgblind"  0x00  info, k, L_bl)
mk = KDF("arkgmac"  0x00  info, k, L_mac)
tag = MACTag(mk, c  info)
pk' = BLBlindPublicKey(pk_bl, tau)
kh = (c, tag)
]]>
If this procedure aborts due to an error,
for example because KDF returns an invalid tau or mk,
the procedure can safely be retried with the same arguments.
The function ARKGDeriveSecretKey
This function is performed by the delegating party, which holds the ARKG private seed (sk_kem, sk_bl).
The resulting secret key sk' can be used in asymmetric cryptography protocols
to prove possession of sk' to an external party that has the corresponding public key.
This function may be invoked any number of times with the same private seed,
in order to derive the same or different secret keys any number of times.
sk'
Options:
BL A key blinding scheme.
KEM A key encapsulation mechanism.
MAC A MAC scheme.
KDF A key derivation function.
L_bl The length in octets of the blinding factor tau
of the key blinding scheme BL.
L_mac The length in octets of the MAC key
of the MAC scheme MAC.
Inputs:
sk_kem A key encapsulation secret key.
sk_bl A key blinding secret key.
kh A key handle output from ARKGDerivePublicKey.
info Optional context and application specific
information (can be a zerolength string).
Output:
sk' A blinded secret key.
The output sk' is calculated as follows:
(c, tag) = kh
k = KEMDecaps(sk_kem, c)
mk = KDF("arkgmac"  0x00  info, k, L_mac)
If MACVerify(mk, c  info, tag) = 0:
Abort with an error.
tau = KDF("arkgblind"  0x00  info, k, L_bl)
sk' = BLBlindSecretKey(sk_bl, tau)
]]>
Errors in this procedure are typically unrecoverable.
For example, KDF might return an invalid tau or mk, or the tag may be invalid.
ARKG instantiations SHOULD be chosen in a way that such errors are impossible
if kh was generated by an honest and correct implementation of ARKGDerivePublicKey.
Incorrect or malicious implementations of ARKGDerivePublicKey do not degrade the security
of a correct and honest implementation of ARKGDeriveSecretKey.
See also .
Generic ARKG instantiations
This section defines generic formulae for instantiating the individual ARKG parameters,
which can be used to define concrete ARKG instantiations.
Using elliptic curve arithmetic for key blinding
Instantiations of ARKG whose output keys are elliptic curve keys
can use elliptic curve arithmetic as the key blinding scheme BL. Frymann2020
This section defines a general formula for such instantiations of BL.
Let crv be an elliptic curve.
Then the BL parameter of ARKG may be instantiated as follows:

Elliptic curve points are encoded to and from octet strings
using the procedures defined in sections 2.3.3 and 2.3.4 of SEC 1.

Elliptic curve scalar values are encoded to and from octet strings
using the procedures defined in sections 2.3.7 and 2.3.8 of SEC 1.

N is the order of crv.

G is the generator of crv.
(pk, sk)
sk = Random(1, N)
pk_tmp = G^sk
If pk_tmp equals the point at infinity, abort with an error.
pk = pk_tmp
TODO: Also reject G?
BLBlindPublicKey(pk, tau) > pk_tau
If tau = 0 or tau >= N, abort with an error.
pk_tau_tmp = pk * (G^tau)
If pk_tau_tmp equals the point at infinity, abort with an error.
pk_tau = pk_tau_tmp
TODO: Also reject G?
BLBlindSecretKey(sk, tau) > sk_tau
If tau = 0 or tau >= N, abort with an error.
sk_tau_tmp = sk + tau
If sk_tau_tmp = 0, abort with an error.
sk_tau = sk_tau_tmp
TODO: Also reject 1?
]]>
Using ECDH as the KEM
Instantiations of ARKG can use ECDH as the key encapsulation mechanism.
This section defines a general formula for such instantiations of KEM.
Let crv be an elliptic curve used for ECDH.
Then the KEM parameter of ARKG may be instantiated as follows:

Elliptic curve points are encoded to and from octet strings
using the procedures defined in sections 2.3.3 and 2.3.4 of SEC 1.

Elliptic curve coordinate field elements are encoded to and from octet strings
using the procedures defined in sections 2.3.5 and 2.3.6 of SEC 1.

Elliptic curve scalar values are encoded to and from octet strings
using the procedures defined in sections 2.3.7 and 2.3.8 of SEC 1.

ECDH(pk, sk) represents the compact output of ECDH
using public key (curve point) pk and secret key (exponent) sk.

N is the order of crv.

G is the generator of crv.
(pk, sk)
sk = Random(1, N)
pk_tmp = G^sk
If pk_tmp equals the point at infinity, abort with an error.
pk = pk_tmp
TODO: Also reject G?
KEMEncaps(pk) > (k, c)
(pk', sk') = KEMGenerateKeypair()
k = ECDH(pk, sk')
c = pk'
KEMDecaps(sk, c) > k
pk' = c
k = ECDH(pk', sk)
]]>
Using both elliptic curve arithmetic for key blinding and ECDH as the KEM
If elliptic curve arithmetic is used for key blinding and ECDH is used as the KEM,
as described in the previous sections,
then both of them MAY use the same curve or MAY use different curves.
If both use the same curve, then it is also possible to use the same public key
as both the key blinding public key and the KEM public key.
TODO: Caveats? I think I read in some paper or thesis about specific drawbacks of using the same key for both.
Using HMAC as the MAC
Let Hash be a cryptographic hash function.
Then the MAC parameter of ARKG may be instantiated using HMAC as follows:
t
t = HMACHash(K=k, text=m)
MACVerify(k, m, t) > { 0, 1 }
t' = HMACHash(K=k, text=m)
If t = t':
return 1
Else:
return 0
]]>
Using HKDF as the KDF
Let Hash be a cryptographic hash function.
Then the KDF parameter of ARKG may be instantiated using HKDF as follows:
okm
PRK = HKDFExtract with the arguments:
Hash: Hash
salt: not set
IKM: ikm
okm = HKDFExpand with the arguments:
Hash: Hash
PRK: PRK
info: info
L: L
]]>
Concrete ARKG instantiations
This section defines an initial set of concrete ARKG instantiations.
TODO: IANA registry? COSE/JOSE?
ARKGP256ECDHP256HMACSHA256HKDFSHA256
The identifier ARKGP256ECDHP256HMACSHA256HKDFSHA256 represents the following ARKG instance:

BL: Elliptic curve arithmetic as described in with the parameter:

crv: The NIST curve secp256r1 [SEC2].

KEM: ECDH as described in with the parameter:

crv: The NIST curve secp256r1 [SEC2].

MAC: HMAC as described in with the parameter:

Hash: SHA256 [FIPS 1804].

KDF: HKDF as described in with the parameter:

Hash: SHA256 [FIPS 1804].

L_bl: 32

L_mac: 32
ARKGP384ECDHP384HMACSHA384HKDFSHA384
The identifier ARKGP384ECDHP384HMACSHA384HKDFSHA384 represents the following ARKG instance:

BL: Elliptic curve arithmetic as described in with the parameter:

crv: The NIST curve secp384r1 [SEC2].

KEM: ECDH as described in with the parameter:

crv: The NIST curve secp384r1 [SEC2].

MAC: HMAC as described in with the parameter:

Hash: SHA384 [FIPS 1804].

KDF: HKDF as described in with the parameter:

Hash: SHA384 [FIPS 1804].

L_bl: 48

L_mac: 48
ARKGP521ECDHP521HMACSHA512HKDFSHA512
The identifier ARKGP521ECDHP521HMACSHA512HKDFSHA512 represents the following ARKG instance:

BL: Elliptic curve arithmetic as described in with the parameter:

crv: The NIST curve secp521r1 [SEC2].

KEM: ECDH as described in with the parameter:

crv: The NIST curve secp521r1 [SEC2].

MAC: HMAC as described in with the parameter:

Hash: SHA512 [FIPS 1804].

KDF: HKDF as described in with the parameter:

Hash: SHA512 [FIPS 1804].

L_bl: 64

L_mac: 64
ARKGP256kECDHP256kHMACSHA256HKDFSHA256
The identifier ARKGP256kECDHP256kHMACSHA256HKDFSHA256 represents the following ARKG instance:

BL: Elliptic curve arithmetic as described in with the parameter:

crv: The SECG curve secp256k1 [SEC2].

KEM: ECDH as described in with the parameter:

crv: The SECG curve secp256k1 [SEC2].

MAC: HMAC as described in with the parameter:

Hash: SHA256 [FIPS 1804].

KDF: HKDF as described in with the parameter:

Hash: SHA256 [FIPS 1804].

L_bl: 32

L_mac: 32
ARKGEd25519X25519HMACSHA256HKDFSHA256
The identifier ARKGEd25519X25519HMACSHA256HKDFSHA256 represents the following ARKG instance:

BL: Elliptic curve arithmetic as described in with the parameter:

crv: The curve Ed25519 [REF?].

KEM: ECDH as described in with the parameter:

crv: The curve X25519 [REF?].

MAC: HMAC as described in with the parameter:

Hash: SHA256 [FIPS 1804].

KDF: HKDF as described in with the parameter:

Hash: SHA256 [FIPS 1804].

L_bl: 32

L_mac: 32
ARKGX25519X25519HMACSHA256HKDFSHA256
The identifier ARKGX25519X25519HMACSHA256HKDFSHA256 represents the following ARKG instance:

BL: Elliptic curve arithmetic as described in with the parameter:

crv: The curve X25519 [REF?].

KEM: ECDH as described in with the parameter:

crv: The curve X25519 [REF?].

MAC: HMAC as described in with the parameter:

Hash: SHA256 [FIPS 1804].

KDF: HKDF as described in with the parameter:

Hash: SHA256 [FIPS 1804].

L_bl: 32

L_mac: 32
COSE bindings
TODO?: Define COSE representations for interoperability:
 ARKG public seed (for interoperability between different implementers of ARKGGenerateSeed and ARKGDerivePublicKey)
 ARKG key handle (for interoperability between different implementers of ARKGDerivePublicKey and ARKGDeriveSecretKey)
Security Considerations
TODO
Privacy Considerations
TODO
Design rationale
Using a MAC
The ARKG construction by Wilson omits the MAC and instead encodes application context in the PRF labels,
arguing this leads to invalid keys/signatures in cases that would have a bad MAC.
We choose to keep the MAC from the construction by Frymann et al. for two purposes.
The first is so that the delegating party can distinguish between key handles addressed to it
and those addressed to other delegating parties.
We anticipate use cases where a private key usage request may contain key handles for several delegating parties
eligible to fulfill the request,
and the delegate party to be used can be chosen opportunistically depending on which are available at the time.
Without the MAC, choosing the wrong key handle would cause the ARKGDeriveSecretKey procedure to silently derive the wrong key
instead of returning an explicit error, which would in turn lead to an invalid signature or similar final output.
This would make it difficult or impossible to diagnose the root cause of the issue and present actionable user feedback.
The MAC also allows ARKG key handles to be transmitted via heterogeneous data channels,
possibly including a mix of ARKG key handles and similar values used for other algorithms.
The second purpose is so that the delegating party can be assured that no errors should happen
during the execution of ARKGDeriveSecretKey, such as outofrange or invalid key values.
For example, key generation in ARKGDerivePublicKey might be done by randomly testing candidates [NIST.SP.80056Ar3]
and retrying ARKGDerivePublicKey until a valid candidate is found.
A MAC enables ARKGDeriveSecretKey to assume that the first candidate from a given pseudorandom seed will be successful,
and otherwise return an explicit error rejecting the key handle as invalid.
ARKGDerivePublicKey is likely to run on powerful generalpurpose hardware, such as a laptop, smartphone or server,
while ARKGDeriveSecretKey might run on more constrained hardware such as a cryptographic smart card,
which benefits greatly from such optimizations.
It is straightforward to see that adding the MAC to the construction by Wilson
does not weaken the security properties defined by Frymann et al. :
the construction by Frymann et al. can be reduced to the ARKG construction in this document
by instantiating KEM as group exponentiation
and instantiating BL as group multiplication to blind public keys and modular integer addition to blind secret keys.
The MAC and KDF parameters correspond trivially to the MAC and KDF parameters in ,
where KDF_{1}(k) = KDF(k, l_{1}) and KDF_{2}(k) = KDF(k, l_{2})
with fixed labels l_{1} and l_{2}.
Hence if one can break PKunlinkability or SKsecurity of the ARKG construction in this document,
one can also break the same property of the construction by Frymann et al.
Implementation Status
TODO
References
TODO
TODO: Ask authors for canonical reference addresses
References
Normative References
HMAC: KeyedHashing for Message Authentication
This document describes HMAC, a mechanism for message authentication using cryptographic hash functions. HMAC can be used with any iterative cryptographic hash function, e.g., MD5, SHA1, in combination with a secret shared key. The cryptographic strength of HMAC depends on the properties of the underlying hash function. This memo provides information for the Internet community. This memo does not specify an Internet standard of any kind
Internet Security Glossary, Version 2
This Glossary provides definitions, abbreviations, and explanations of terminology for information system security. The 334 pages of entries offer recommendations to improve the comprehensibility of written material that is generated in the Internet Standards Process (RFC 2026). The recommendations follow the principles that such writing should (a) use the same term or definition whenever the same concept is mentioned; (b) use terms in their plainest, dictionary sense; (c) use terms that are already wellestablished in open publications; and (d) avoid terms that either favor a particular vendor or favor a particular technology or mechanism over other, competing techniques that already exist or could be developed. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
HMACbased ExtractandExpand Key Derivation Function (HKDF)
This document specifies a simple Hashed Message Authentication Code (HMAC)based key derivation function (HKDF), which can be used as a building block in various protocols and applications. The key derivation function (KDF) is intended to support a wide range of applications and requirements, and is conservative in its use of cryptographic hash functions. This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is published for informational purposes.
Fundamental Elliptic Curve Cryptography Algorithms
This note describes the fundamental algorithms of Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) as they were defined in some seminal references from 1994 and earlier. These descriptions may be useful for implementing the fundamental algorithms without using any of the specialized methods that were developed in following years. Only elliptic curves defined over fields of characteristic greater than three are in scope; these curves are those used in Suite B. This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is published for informational purposes.
BIP 32 Hierarchical Deterministic Wallets
SEC 1 Elliptic Curve Cryptography
Certicom Research
Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels
In many standards track documents several words are used to signify the requirements in the specification. These words are often capitalized. This document defines these words as they should be interpreted in IETF documents. This document specifies an Internet Best Current Practices for the Internet Community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements.
Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC 2119 Key Words
RFC 2119 specifies common key words that may be used in protocol specifications. This document aims to reduce the ambiguity by clarifying that only UPPERCASE usage of the key words have the defined special meanings.
Informative References
Post Quantum Asynchronous Remote Key Generation. Master's thesis
Technische Universität Darmstadt
WebAuthn recovery extension: Asynchronous delegated key generation without shared secrets. GitHub
Asynchronous Remote Key Generation: An Analysis of Yubico's Proposal for W3C WebAuthn. CCS '20: Proceedings of the 2020 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security
Asynchronous Remote Key Generation for PostQuantum Cryptosystems from Lattices. 2023 IEEE 8th European Symposium on Security and Privacy
PostQuantum Account Recovery for Passwordless Authentication. Master's thesis
University of Waterloo,
Acknowledgements
ARKG was first proposed under this name by Frymann et al. ,
who analyzed a proposed extension to W3C Web Authentication by Lundberg and Nilsson ,
which was in turn inspired by a similar construction by Wuille used to create privacypreserving Bitcoin addresses.
Frymann et al. generalized the constructions by Lundberg, Nilsson and Wuille
from elliptic curves to any discrete logarithm (DL) problem,
and also proved the security of arbitrary asymmetric protocols composed with ARKG.
Further generalizations to include quantumresistant instantiations
were developed independently by Clermont , Frymann et al. and Wilson .
This document adopts the construction proposed by Wilson ,
modified by the inclusion of a MAC in the key handles as done in the original construction by Frymann et al. .
The authors would like to thank all of these authors for their research and development work that led to the creation of this document.
Document History
00
Initial Version