Internet-Draft New CC Algorithms February 2024
Duke & Fairhurst Expires 5 August 2024 [Page]
5033 (if approved)
Intended Status:
Best Current Practice
M. Duke, Ed.
Google LLC
G. Fairhurst, Ed.
University of Aberdeen

Specifying New Congestion Control Algorithms


Introducing new or modified congestion controller algorithms in the global Internet have possible ramifications to both the traffic using the new method and to traffic using a standardized congestion control algorithm. Therefore, the IETF must proceed with caution when evaluating proposals for alternate congestion control. The goal of this document is to provide guidance for considering standardization of an alternate congestion control algorithm at the IETF. It replaces RFC5033 to reflect changes in the congestion control landscape.

About This Document

This note is to be removed before publishing as an RFC.

Status information for this document may be found at

Discussion of this document takes place on the Congestion Control Working Group (ccwg) Working Group mailing list (, which is archived at Subscribe at

Source for this draft and an issue tracker can be found at

Status of This Memo

This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-Drafts is at

Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

This Internet-Draft will expire on 5 August 2024.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

This document provides guidelines for the IETF to use when evaluating a proposed congestion control algorithm that differ from the general congestion control principles outlined in [RFC2914]. The guidance is intended to be useful to authors proposing alternate congestion control algorithms and for the IETF community when evaluating whether a proposal is appropriate for publication in the RFC series and for deployment in the Internet.

This document obsoletes the similarly titled [RFC5033] that was published in 2007 as a Best Current Practice to evaluate alternate congestion control algorithms as Experimental or Proposed Standard RFCs.

The IETF's standard congestion control algorithms have been shown to have performance challenges in various environments (e.g., high-speed networks, cellular and WiFi wireless technologies, long distance satellite links) and also for specific traffic workloads (VoIP, gaming, and videoconferencing).

In 2007, TCP was the dominant consumer of this work, and proposals were typically discussed in research groups, for example the Internet Congestion Control Research Group (ICCRG).

Since RFC 5033 was published, many conditions have changed. The set of protocols using these algorithms has spread beyond TCP and SCTP to include DCCP, QUIC, and beyond. Some proponents of alternative congestion control algorithms now have the opportunity to test and deploy at scale without IETF review. There is more interest in specialized use cases, such as data centers, and in support for a variety of upper layer protocols/applications, e.g., real-time protocols. Finally, the community has gained much more experience with indications of congestion beyond packet loss.

Multicast congestion control is a considerably less mature field of study and are not in scope for this document. However, Section 4 of the UDP Usage Guidelines [RFC8085] provide additional guidelines for multicast and broadcast usage of UDP.

Congestion control algorithms have been developed outside of the IETF, including at least two that saw large scale deployment: Cubic [HRX08] and Bottleneck Bandwidth and Round-trip propagation time (BBR) [BBR-draft].

Cubic was documented in a research publication in 2007 [HRX08], and was then adopted as the default congestion control algorithm for the TCP implementation in Linux. It was already used in a significant fraction of TCP connections over the Internet before being documented in an Informational Internet Draft in 2015, published as an Informational RFC in 2017 [RFC8312] and then as a proposed standard in 2023 [RFC9438].

BBR is developed as an internal research project by Google, with the first implementation contributed to Linux kernel 4.19 in 2016. It was described in an IRTF draft in 2018, and that draft is regularly updated to document the evolving versions of the algorithm [BBR-draft]. BBR is widely used for Google services using either TCP or QUIC [RFC9000], and is also widely deployed outside of Google.

We cannot say now whether the original authors of [RFC5033] expected that developers would be somehow waiting for IETF review before widely deploying a new congestion control algorithm over the Internet, but the examples of Cubic and BBR teach us that deployment of new algorithms is not in fact gated by publication of the algorithm as an RFC.

Nevertheless, specifying congestion control algorithms has a number of advantages:

Beyond helping develop specific algorithm proposals, guidelines can also serve as a reminder to potential inventors and developers of the multiple facets of the congestion control problem.

The evaluation guidelines in this document are intended to be consistent with the congestion control principles from [RFC2914] of preventing congestion collapse, considering fairness, and optimizing the flow's own performance in terms of throughput, delay, and loss. [RFC2914] also discusses the goal of avoiding a congestion control "arms race" among competing transport protocols.

This document does not give hard-and-fast requirements for an appropriate congestion control algorithm. Rather, the document provides a set of criteria that should be considered and weighed by the developers of alternative algorithms and by the IETF in the context of each proposal.

The high-order criteria for any proposal is a serious scientific study of the pros and cons occurs when a proposal is considered for publication by the IETF or before it is deployed at large scale.

After initial studies, we encourage authors to write a specification of their proposals for publication in the RFC series to allow others to concretely understand and investigate the wealth of proposals in this space.

This document is meant to reduce the barriers to entry for new congestion control work to the IETF. As such, proponents ought not to interpret these criteria as a checklist of requirements before approaching the IETF. Instead, proponents are encouraged to think about these issues beforehand, and have the willingness to do the work implied by the remainder of this document.

2. Document Status

This document applies to proposals that seek Experimental or Standards Track status. Evaluation of both cases involves the same questions, but with different expectations for both the answers and the degree of certainty it the answers.

Congestion control algorithms without experience of Internet-scale deployment SHOULD seek Experimental status until real-world data is able to answer the questions in Section 4. Congestion control algorithms with a record of measured Internet- scale deployment MAY directly seek the Standards Track if the community believes it is safe, and the design is stable, guided by the considerations in Section 4. The existence of this data does not waive the other considerations in this document.

Algorithms that are designed for special environments (e.g., data centers) and forbidden from use in the Internet would, of course, instead seek real-world data for those environments.

Experimental specifications SHOULD NOT be deployed as a default. They SHOULD only be deployed in situations where they are being actively measured, and where it is possible to deactivate if there are signs of pathological behavior.

Each published alternate congestion control algorithm is REQUIRED to include a statement in the abstract indicating whether or not there is IETF consensus that the proposal is considered safe for use on the Internet. Each published algorithm is also required to include a statement in the abstract describing environments where the protocol is not recommended for deployment. There can be environments where the controller is deemed safe for use, but it is still is not recommended for use because it does not perform well for the user.

As examples of such statements, [RFC3649] specifying HighSpeed TCP includes a statement in the abstract stating that the proposal is Experimental, but may be deployed in the current Internet. In contrast, the Quick-Start document [RFC4782] includes a paragraph in the abstract stating the mechanism is only being proposed for controlled environments. The abstract specifies environments where the Quick-Start request could give false positives (and therefore would be unsafe for incremental deployment where some routers forward, but do not process the option). The abstract also specifies environments where packets containing the Quick-Start request could be dropped in the network; in such an environment, Quick-Start would not be unsafe to deploy, but deployment would not be recommended because it could lead to unnecessary delays for the connections attempting to use Quick-Start. The Quick-Start method is discussed as an example in [RFC9049].

Though out of scope of this document, a proponent of a new algorithm could alternatively seek publication as an Informational or Experimental RFC via the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF). In general, these proposals are expected to be less mature than ones that follow the procedures in this document. Documentation of deployed congestion control algorithms that cannot be changed by IETF or IRTF review are invited to publish as an Informational RFC via the Independent Stream Editor (ISE).

3. Evaluation Criteria

As noted above, authors are expected to do a well-rounded evaluation of the pros and cons of proposals brought to the IETF. The following are guidelines to help authors and the IETF community. Concerns that fall outside the scope of these guidelines are certainly possible; these guidelines should not be considered as an all-encompassing check-list.

When considering a new congestion control proposal, the community MUST consider the following criteria. These criteria will be evaluated in various domains (see Section 4 and Section 5).

3.1. Single Algorithm Behavior

The following criteria evaluate the proposal when one or more flows using that algorithm share a bottleneck link (i.e. with no flows using a differing congestion controi algorithm).

3.1.1. Protection Against Congestion Collapse

The alternate congestion control algorithm should either stop sending when the packet drop rate exceeds some threshold [RFC3714], or should include some notion of "full backoff". For "full backoff", at some point the algorithm would reduce the sending rate to one packet per round-trip time and then exponentially backoff the time between single packet transmissions if the congestion persists. Exactly when either "full backoff" or a pause in sending comes into play will be algorithm-specific. However, as discussed in [RFC2914] and [RFC8961], this requirement is crucial to protect the network in times of extreme (persistent) congestion.

If the result of full backoff is used, this test does not require that the full backoff mechanism must be identical to that of TCP [RFC2988] [RFC8961]. As an example, this does not preclude full backoff mechanisms that would give flows with different round- trip times comparable capacity during backoff.

3.1.2. Protection Against Bufferbloat

The alternate congestion control algorithm should reduce its sending rate if the round trip time (RTT) significantly increases. Exactly how the algorithm reduces its sending rate is algorithm-specific, but see [RFC8961] and [RFC8085] for requirements.

Bufferbloat [Bufferbloat] refers to the building of long queues in the network. Many network routers are configured with very large buffers. If congestion is detected, classic TCP congestion control algorithms [RFC5681] will continue sending at a high rate until a First-In First-Out (FIFO) buffer completely fills and packet losses then occur. Every connection pasing through that bottleneck will then experience increased latency. This adds unwanted latency that impacts highly interactive applications like games, but it also affects routine web browsing and video playing.

This problem became apparent in the last decade and was not discussed in the Congestion Control Principles published in September 2002 [RFC2914]. The classic congestion control algorithm [RFC5681] and the widely deployed Cubic algorithm [RFC9438] do not address it, but a newly designed algorithm has the opportunity to improve the state of the art.

3.1.3. Fairness within the Alternate Congestion Control Algorithm.

When multiple competing flows all use the same alternate congestion control algorithm, the proposal should explore how the capacity is shared among the competing flows. Capacity fairness can be important when a small number of similar flows compete to fill a bottleneck. It can however also not be useful, for example, when comparing flows that seek to send at different rates or when some of the flows do not last sufficiently long to approach asymptotic behavior.

3.1.4. Short Flows

A great deal of congestion control analysis concerns the steady-state behavior of long flows. However, many Internet flows are relatively short-lived. If they never experience a packet loss, a short-lived flow remains in the "slow start" mode of operation [RFC5681], e.g., that features exponential congestion window growth.

A proposals for a new congestion control algorithm MUST consider how new and short-lived flows affect long-lived flows, and vice versa.

3.2. Mixed Algorithm Behavior

These criteria evaluate the interaction of the proposal with commonly deployed congestion control algorithms.

In contexts where differing congestion control algorithms are used, it is important to understand whether a proposal can induce more harm to flows sharing a bottleneck than for the existing defined methods. The measure of harm is not restricted to the equality of capacity, but ought also to consider metrics such as the latency introduced, or an increase in packet loss. An evaluation must assess the potential to cause starvation, including assurance that a loss of all feedback (e.g., detected by expiry of a retransmission time out) results in backoff.

3.2.1. Existing General-Purpose Transports

Evaluate the impact on TCP [RFC9293], SCTP [RFC9260], DCCP [RFC4340], and QUIC [RFC9000].

A proposed congestion control algorithm SHOULD be evaluated when competing with standard IETF congestion control [RFC5681], [RFC9260], [RFC4340], [RFC9002], [RFC9438]. A proposal that has a significantly negative impact on traffic using standard congestion control might be suspect and this aspect should be part of the community's decision making with regards to the suitability of the proposed congestion control algorithm. The community should also consider other non-standard congestion control algorithms that are known to be widely deployed,

We note that this guideline is not a requirement for strict Reno- or Cubic- friendliness as a prerequisite for an alternate congestion control mechanism to advance to Experimental or Standards Track status. As an example, HighSpeed TCP is a congestion control mechanism specified as Experimental, that is not TCP-friendly in all environments. When a new algorithm is deployed, the existing major deployments need to be considered to avoid severe performance degradation. We also note that this guideline does not constrain the interaction with non-best-effort traffic.

As an example from an Experimental RFC, fairness with standard TCP is discussed in Sections 4 and 6 of [RFC3649] (HighSpeed TCP) and using spare capacity is discussed in Sections 6, 11.1, and 12 of [RFC3649].

3.2.2. Real-Time Protocols

General-purpose protocols need to coexist in the Internet with real-time congestion control algorithms, which, in general, have finite throughput requirements (i.e. do not seek to utilize all available capacity) and more strict latency bounds.

[RFC8868] provides suggestions for real-time congestion control design and [RFC8867] suggests test cases. [RFC9392] describes some considerations for the RTP Control Protocol (RTCP). In particular, feedback for real-time flows can be less frequent than the acknowledgements provided by reliable transports. This document does not change the informational status of those RFCs.

New proposals SHOULD consider coexistence with widely deployed real-time congestion control algorithms. Regrettably, at the time of writing, many algorithms with detailed public specifications are not widely deployed, while many widely deployed real-time congestion control algorithms have incomplete public specifications. It is hoped this situation will change.

To the extent that behavior of widely deployed algorithms is understood, proposals can analyze and simulate their interaction with those algorithms. To the extent they are not, experiments can be conducted where possible.

Note that in many deployments, real-time traffic is directed into distinct queues via Differentiated Services Code Points (DSCP) or other mechanisms, which substantially reduces the interplay with other traffic. However, a proposal targeting Internet use MUST NOT assume that all paths support specific mechanisms.

3.2.3. Short and Long Flows

The effect on short-lived and long-lived flows using other common congestion control algorithms MUST be evaluated, as in Section 3.1.4.

3.3. Other Criteria

3.3.1. Differences with Congestion Control Principles

Proposed congestion control algorithms SHOULD include a clear explanation of any deviations from [RFC2914] and [RFC7141].

3.3.2. Incremental Deployment

The proposal ought to discuss whether the proposal allows for incremental deployment in the targeted environment. For a mechanism targeted for deployment in the current Internet, it would be helpful for a proposal to discuss what is known (if anything) about the correct operation of the mechanisms with some of the equipment that can be installed in the current Internet, e.g., routers, transparent proxies, WAN optimizers, intrusion detection systems, home routers, and the like.

As a similar concern, if the proposal is intended only for specific environments (and not the global Internet), the proposal should consider how this intention is to be realised. The community will have to address the question of whether the scope can be enforced by stating the restrictions or whether additional protocol mechanisms are required to enforce this scoping. The answer will necessarily depend on the change that is being proposed.

As an example from an Experimental RFC, deployment issues are discussed in Sections 10.3 and 10.4 of [RFC4782] (Quick-Start).

4. General Use

The criteria in Section 3 will be evaluated in the following scenarios. Unless a proposed congestion control algorithm explicitly forbids use on the public Internet, the community MUST find that it meets the criteria in these scenarios for the proposal to progress.

The evaluation in each scenario should occur over a representative range of bandwidths, delays, and queue depths. Of course, the set of parameters representative of the public Internet will change over time.

These criteria are intended to capture a statistically dominant set of Internet conditions. In the case that a proposed algorithm has been ted at Internet scale, the results from that deployment are often useful for answering these questions.

4.1. Tunnel Behavior

When a proposal relies on explicit signals from the path, proposals MUST consider the effect of traffic passing through a tunnel, where routers may not be aware of the flow.

4.2. Paths with Tail-drop Queues

The performance of a congestion control algorithm is affected by the queue discipline applied at the bottleneck link. The drop-tail queue discipline (using a FIFO buffer) MUST be evaluated. See Section 5.1 for evaluation of other queue disciplines.

4.3. Wired Paths

Wired networks are usually characterized by extremely low rates of packet loss except for those due to queue drops. They tend to have stable aggregate bandwidth, usually higher than other types of links, and low non-queueing delay. Because the properties are relatively simple, wired links are typically used as a "baseline" case even if they are not always the bottleneck link in the modern Internet.

4.4. Wireless Paths

While the early Internet was dominated by wired links, the properties of wireless links have become extremely important to Internet performance. In particular, a proposal should be evaluated in situations where some packet losses are due to radio effects, rather than router queue drops; the link capacity varies over time due to changing link conditions; and media access delays and link-layer retransmission lead to increased jitter in round-trip times. See [RFC3819] and Section 16 of [Tools] for further discussion of wireless properties.

5. Special Cases

The criteria in Section 3 will be evaluated in the following scenarios, unless the proposal specifically excludes its use in a scenario. The community MAY allow a proposal to progress even if the criteria indicate an unsatisfactory result for these scenarios.

In general, measurements from Internet-scale deployments will not expose the properties of operation in these scenarios, as they are statistically small.

5.1. Active Queue Management (AQM)

Proposals SHOULD be evaluated under a variety of bottleneck queue disciplines. The effect of an AQM discipline can be hard to detect by Internet evaluation. At a minimum, a proposal should reason about an algorithm's response to various AQM disciplines. Simulation or empirical results are, of course, valuable.

Among the AQM techniques that might have an impact on a proposed congestion control algorithm are FQ-CoDel [RFC8290]; Proportional Integral Controller Enhanced (PIE) [RFC8033]; and Low Latency, Low Loss, and Scalable Throughput (L4S) [RFC9332].

Congestion control proposals that set one of the two Explicit Congestion Transport (ECT) codepoints in the IP header can gain the benefits of receiving Explicit Congestion Notifictaion (ECN) Congestion Experienced (CE) signals from an on-path AQM [RFC8087]. Use of ECN [RFC3168],[RFC9332] results in requirements for the congestion control algorithm to react when it receives a packet with an ECN-CE marking. This reaction needs to be evaluated to confirm that the algorithm conforms with the requirements of the ECT codepoint that was used.

Note that evaluation of AQM techniques -- as opposed to their impact on specific congestion control proposals -- is out of scope of this document. [RFC7567] describes design considerations for AQMs.

5.2. Paths with Varying Delay

An Internet Path can include simple links, where the minimum delay is the propagation delay, and any additional delay can be attributed to link buffering. This cannot be assumed. An Internet Path can also include complex subnetworks where the minimum delay changes over various time scales, resulting in a non-stationary minimum delay.

This occurs when a subnet changes the forwarding path to optimise capacity, resilience, etc. It could also arise when a subnet uses a capacity management method where the available resource is periodically distributed among the active nodes and where a node might then have to buffer data until an assigned transmission opportunity or when the physical path changes (e.g., when the length of a wireless path changes, or the physical layer changes its mode of operation). Variation also arises when a higher priority diffserv traffic classic prompts the transmission by a lower class. In these cases, the delay varies as a function of external factors and attempting to infer congestion from an increase in the delay results in reduced throughput. The jitter from variation over short timescales might not be distinguishable similar from other effects.

Congestion control proposals SHOULD be evaluated to ensure their operation is robust when there is a significant change in the minimum delay.

5.3. Internet of Things

The "Internet of Things" (IoT) is a broad concept, but when evaluating a proposal, it is often associated with unique characteristics.

IoT nodes might be more constrained in power, CPU, or other parameters than conventional Internet hosts. This might place limits on the complexity of any given algorithm. These power and radio constraints might make the volume of control packets in a given algorithm a key evaluation metric.

Furthermore, many IoT applications do not a have a human in the loop, and therefore can have weaker latency constraints because they do not relate to a user experience, but still need to share the path with other flows with different constraints.

Extremely low-power links can lead to very low throughput and a low bandwidth- delay product, well below the standard operating range of most Internet flows.

5.4. Paths with High Delay

A proposal ought not to presume that all general Internet paths have a low delay. Some paths include links that contibute much more delay than for a typical Internet path. Satellite links often have delays longer than typical for wired paths [RFC2488] and high delay bandwidth products [RFC3649]. Also, many systems use dynamic capacity assignment that can result in variation of the delay and the capacity over timescales of the order of the path RTT. Robustness to delay and delay variation may be a key evaluation metric.

5.5. Misbehaving Nodes

The proposal should explore how the congestion control proposal performs with non-compliant senders, receivers, or routers. In addition, the proposal should explore how an alternate congestion control algorithm performs with outside attackers. This can be particularly important for proposals that involve explicit feedback from routers along the path.

As an example from an Experimental RFC, performance with misbehaving nodes and outside attackers is discussed in Sections 9.4, 9.5, and 9.6 of [RFC4782] (Quick-Start). This includes discussion of misbehaving senders and receivers; collusion between misbehaving routers; misbehaving middleboxes; and the potential use of Quick-Start to attack routers or to tie up available Quick-Start bandwidth.

5.6. Extreme Packet Reordering

A proposal ought not to presume that all general Internet paths reliably deliver packets in order. [RFC4653] discusses the effect of extreme packet reordering.

5.7. Transient Events

The proposal SHOULD consider how the proposed congestion control algorithm would perform in the presence of transient events such as sudden onset of congestion, a routing change, or a mobility event. Routing changes, link disconnections, intermittent link connectivity, and mobility are discussed in more detail in Section 17 of [Tools].

As an example from an Experimental RFC, response to transient events is discussed in Section 9.2 of [RFC4782] (Quick-Start).

5.7.1. Sudden changes in the Path

An IETF transport is not tied to a specific Internet path or type of path. The set of routers that form a path can and do change with time, this will cause the properties of the path to change with respect to time. New CCs MUST evaluate the impact of changes in the path, and be robust to changes in path characteristics on the interval of common Internet re-routing intervals.

Even when the set of routers constituting a path does not change, the properties of that path can vary with time (e.g., due to a change of link capacity, relative priority, or a change in the rate of other traffic sharing a bottleneck), with a potential impact on the operation of a congestion control algorithm.

5.8. Multipath Transport

Multipath transport protocols permit more than one path to be differentiated and used by a single connection at the sender. A multipath sender can schedule which packets travel on which of its active paths. This enables a tradeoff in timeliness and reliability. There are various ways that multipath techniques can be used.

One example use is to provide fail-over from one path to another when the original path is no longer viable or to switch the traffic from one path to another when this is expected to improve performance (latency, throughput, reliability, cost). Designs need to independently track the congestion state of each path, and need to demonstrate independent congestion control for each path being used. New multipath CCs that implement path fail-over MUST evaluate the harm resulting from a change in the path, and show that this does not result in flow starvation. Synchronisation of failover (e.g., where multiple flows change their path on similar timeframes) can also contribute to harm and/or reduce fairness, these effects also ought to be evaluated.

Another example use is concurrent multipath, where the transport protocol simultaneously schedules flows to aggregate the capacity across multiple paths. The Internet provides no guarantee that different paths (e.g., using different endpoint addresses) are disjoint. This has additional implications: New CCs MUST evaluate the potential harm to other flows when the multiple paths share a common congested bottleneck (or share resources that are coupled between different paths, such as an overall capacity limit), and SHOULD consider the potential for harm to other flows. Synchronisation of CC mechanisms (e.g., where multiple flows change their behaviour on similar timeframes) can also contribute to harm and/or reduce fairness, these effects also ought to be evaluated. At the time of writing, there are no IETF standards for concurrent multipath congestion control in the general Internet.

6. Security Considerations

This document does not represent a change to any aspect of the TCP/IP protocol suite and therefore does not directly impact Internet security. The implementation of various facets of the Internet's current congestion control algorithms do have security implications (e.g., as outlined in [RFC5681]).

The IETF process that results in publication needs to ensure that these security implications are considered. Proposals therefore ought to be mindful of pitfalls, and should examine any potential security issues that may arise.

7. IANA Considerations

This document has no IANA actions.

8. References

8.1. Normative References

Floyd, S., "Congestion Control Principles", BCP 41, RFC 2914, DOI 10.17487/RFC2914, , <>.
Kohler, E., Handley, M., and S. Floyd, "Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP)", RFC 4340, DOI 10.17487/RFC4340, , <>.
Allman, M., Paxson, V., and E. Blanton, "TCP Congestion Control", RFC 5681, DOI 10.17487/RFC5681, , <>.
Briscoe, B. and J. Manner, "Byte and Packet Congestion Notification", BCP 41, RFC 7141, DOI 10.17487/RFC7141, , <>.
Eggert, L., Fairhurst, G., and G. Shepherd, "UDP Usage Guidelines", BCP 145, RFC 8085, DOI 10.17487/RFC8085, , <>.
Allman, M., "Requirements for Time-Based Loss Detection", BCP 233, RFC 8961, DOI 10.17487/RFC8961, , <>.
Iyengar, J., Ed. and M. Thomson, Ed., "QUIC: A UDP-Based Multiplexed and Secure Transport", RFC 9000, DOI 10.17487/RFC9000, , <>.
Iyengar, J., Ed. and I. Swett, Ed., "QUIC Loss Detection and Congestion Control", RFC 9002, DOI 10.17487/RFC9002, , <>.
Stewart, R., Tüxen, M., and K. Nielsen, "Stream Control Transmission Protocol", RFC 9260, DOI 10.17487/RFC9260, , <>.
Eddy, W., Ed., "Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)", STD 7, RFC 9293, DOI 10.17487/RFC9293, , <>.
Xu, L., Ha, S., Rhee, I., Goel, V., and L. Eggert, Ed., "CUBIC for Fast and Long-Distance Networks", RFC 9438, DOI 10.17487/RFC9438, , <>.

8.2. Informative References

Cardwell, N., Cheng, Y., Yeganeh, S. H., Swett, I., and V. Jacobson, "BBR Congestion Control", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-cardwell-iccrg-bbr-congestion-control-02, , <>.
Gettys, J., "The Blind Men and the Elephant", IETF Blog , , <>.
Ha, S., Rhee, I., and L. Xu, "CUBIC: a new TCP-friendly high-speed TCP variant", ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 64-74 , , <>.
Allman, M., Glover, D., and L. Sanchez, "Enhancing TCP Over Satellite Channels using Standard Mechanisms", BCP 28, RFC 2488, DOI 10.17487/RFC2488, , <>.
Paxson, V. and M. Allman, "Computing TCP's Retransmission Timer", RFC 2988, DOI 10.17487/RFC2988, , <>.
Ramakrishnan, K., Floyd, S., and D. Black, "The Addition of Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) to IP", RFC 3168, DOI 10.17487/RFC3168, , <>.
Floyd, S., "HighSpeed TCP for Large Congestion Windows", RFC 3649, DOI 10.17487/RFC3649, , <>.
Floyd, S., Ed. and J. Kempf, Ed., "IAB Concerns Regarding Congestion Control for Voice Traffic in the Internet", RFC 3714, DOI 10.17487/RFC3714, , <>.
Karn, P., Ed., Bormann, C., Fairhurst, G., Grossman, D., Ludwig, R., Mahdavi, J., Montenegro, G., Touch, J., and L. Wood, "Advice for Internet Subnetwork Designers", BCP 89, RFC 3819, DOI 10.17487/RFC3819, , <>.
Bhandarkar, S., Reddy, A. L. N., Allman, M., and E. Blanton, "Improving the Robustness of TCP to Non-Congestion Events", RFC 4653, DOI 10.17487/RFC4653, , <>.
Floyd, S., Allman, M., Jain, A., and P. Sarolahti, "Quick-Start for TCP and IP", RFC 4782, DOI 10.17487/RFC4782, , <>.
Floyd, S. and M. Allman, "Specifying New Congestion Control Algorithms", BCP 133, RFC 5033, DOI 10.17487/RFC5033, , <>.
Floyd, S., Ed., "Metrics for the Evaluation of Congestion Control Mechanisms", RFC 5166, DOI 10.17487/RFC5166, , <>.
Baker, F., Ed. and G. Fairhurst, Ed., "IETF Recommendations Regarding Active Queue Management", BCP 197, RFC 7567, DOI 10.17487/RFC7567, , <>.
Pan, R., Natarajan, P., Baker, F., and G. White, "Proportional Integral Controller Enhanced (PIE): A Lightweight Control Scheme to Address the Bufferbloat Problem", RFC 8033, DOI 10.17487/RFC8033, , <>.
Fairhurst, G. and M. Welzl, "The Benefits of Using Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN)", RFC 8087, DOI 10.17487/RFC8087, , <>.
Hoeiland-Joergensen, T., McKenney, P., Taht, D., Gettys, J., and E. Dumazet, "The Flow Queue CoDel Packet Scheduler and Active Queue Management Algorithm", RFC 8290, DOI 10.17487/RFC8290, , <>.
Rhee, I., Xu, L., Ha, S., Zimmermann, A., Eggert, L., and R. Scheffenegger, "CUBIC for Fast Long-Distance Networks", RFC 8312, DOI 10.17487/RFC8312, , <>.
Sarker, Z., Singh, V., Zhu, X., and M. Ramalho, "Test Cases for Evaluating Congestion Control for Interactive Real-Time Media", RFC 8867, DOI 10.17487/RFC8867, , <>.
Singh, V., Ott, J., and S. Holmer, "Evaluating Congestion Control for Interactive Real-Time Media", RFC 8868, DOI 10.17487/RFC8868, , <>.
Dawkins, S., Ed., "Path Aware Networking: Obstacles to Deployment (A Bestiary of Roads Not Taken)", RFC 9049, DOI 10.17487/RFC9049, , <>.
De Schepper, K., Briscoe, B., Ed., and G. White, "Dual-Queue Coupled Active Queue Management (AQM) for Low Latency, Low Loss, and Scalable Throughput (L4S)", RFC 9332, DOI 10.17487/RFC9332, , <>.
Perkins, C., "Sending RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) Feedback for Congestion Control in Interactive Multimedia Conferences", RFC 9392, DOI 10.17487/RFC9392, , <>.
Floyd, S. and E. Kohler, "Tools for the Evaluation of Simulation and Testbed Scenarios", Work in Progress , , <>.


Sally Floyd and Mark Allman were the authors of this document's predecessor, RFC5033, which served the community well for over a decade.

Thanks to Richard Scheffenegger for helping to get this revision process started.

The editors would like to thanks to Neal Cardwell, Reese Enghardt and Dave Taht for suggesting improvements to this document.

Discussions with Lars Eggert and Aaron Falk seeded the original RFC5033. Bob Briscoe, Gorry Fairhurst, Doug Leith, Jitendra Padhye, Colin Perkins, Pekka Savola, members of TSVWG, and participants at the TCP Workshop at Microsoft Research all provided feedback and contributions to that document. It also drew from [RFC5166].

Evolution of RFC5033bis

Since draft-ietf-ccwg-rfc5033bis-02

  • Added discussion of real-time protocols

  • Added discussion of short flows

  • Listed properties of wired networks

  • Added IoT section

  • Added discussion of AQM response

  • Rewrote the "Document Status" section

  • Adding improved first sentence of abstract and intro.

  • Added section on Multicast, noting this is out of scope

  • Editorial changes

Since draft-ietf-ccwg-rfc5033bis-01

  • Added discussion of multipath transports

  • Totally reorganized central sections of the draft

Since draft-ietf-ccwg-rfc5033bis-00

  • Added QUIC, other congestion control standards

  • Added wireless environments

  • Aligned motivation for this work with the CCWG charter

  • Refined discussion of QuickStart

Since draft-scheffenegger-congress-rfc5033bis-00

  • Renamed file to reflect WG adpotion

  • Updated authorship and acknowledgements.

  • Include updated text suggested by Dave Taht

  • Added criterion for bufferbloat

  • Mentioned Cubic and BBR as motivation

  • Include section to track updates between revisions

  • Update references

Since RFC5033

  • converted to Markdown and xml2rfc v3

  • various formatting changes


Christian Huitema
Private Octopus, Inc.

Authors' Addresses

Martin Duke (editor)
Google LLC
Godred Fairhurst (editor)
University of Aberdeen